Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster – January 28, 1986

This information is respectfully dedicated to the victims.

1986

SPACE SHUTTLE
CHALLENGER DISASTER


(JANUARY 28, 1986 — CAPE CANAVERAL)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(January 28, 1986 — Cape Canaveral)


 

The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster was a fatal accident in the United States space program that occurred on January 28, 1986, when the Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the death of all seven crew members aboard; it was the first fatal accident involving an American spacecraft in flight. The mission, designated STS-51-L, was the tenth flight for the Challenger orbiter and twenty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle fleet. The crew was scheduled to deploy a communications satellite and study Halley’s Comet while they were in orbit. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:39 a.m. EST (16:39 UTC).

The disaster was caused by the failure of the two redundant O-ring seals in a joint in the Space Shuttle’s right solid rocket booster (SRB). The record-low temperatures of the launch reduced the elasticity of the rubber O-rings, reducing their ability to seal the joints. The broken seals caused a breach into the joint shortly after liftoff, which allowed pressurized gas from within the SRB to leak and burn through the wall to the adjacent external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB’s aft attachment, which caused it to crash into the external tank, which caused a structural failure of the external tank and an explosion. Following the explosion, the orbiter, which included the crew compartment, was broken up by aerodynamic forces.

The crew compartment and many other fragments from the Space Shuttle were recovered from the ocean floor after a three-month search-and-recovery operation. The exact timing of the deaths of the crew is unknown; several crew members are thought to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. By design, the orbiter had no escape system, and the impact of the crew compartment at terminal velocity with the ocean surface was too violent to be survivable.

The disaster resulted in a 32-month hiatus in the Space Shuttle program. President Ronald Reagan created the Rogers Commission to investigate the accident. The commission criticized NASA’s organizational culture and decision-making processes that had contributed to the accident. Test data from as early as 1977 had revealed a potentially catastrophic flaw in the SRBs’ O-rings. Neither NASA, nor Morton Thiokol (the SRB manufacturer), addressed or corrected the issue. NASA managers also disregarded warnings from engineers about the dangers of launching in cold temperatures and did not report these technical concerns to their superiors. As a result of the disaster, NASA established the Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance to address safety concerns better, and commercial satellites would be launched on expendable launch vehicles rather than deployed from the crewed orbiter. To replace Challenger, construction of Endeavour was approved in 1987, and the new orbiter first flew in 1992. Later Space Shuttle missions launched with redesigned SRBs, and crews wore pressure suits during ascent and reentry.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

SECTION INDEX


THE TRUTH

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

NASA TRUTH

> IT’S TIME TO DEFUND NASA <

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – Did the Challenger Crew survive?

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


What if…

Capricorn One (1978) – Launching Scene

CHALLENGER CREW FATE


 

Divers from the USS Preserver located what they believed to be the crew cabin on the ocean floor on March 7, 1986. A dive the following day confirmed that it was the cabin and that the remains of the crew were inside. No official investigation into the Challenger disaster has determined the cause of death of the astronauts; it is almost certain that the disintegration itself did not kill the entire crew as 3 of the 4 Personal Egress Air Packs (PEAPs) that were recovered had been manually activated. This would only be done during an emergency or loss of cabin pressure. PEAPs do not provide a pressurized air flow and would still have resulted in the astronauts losing consciousness within several seconds. There were media reports alleging that NASA had a tape recording of the crew panicking and on-board conversation following the disintegration during the 2 minute 45 second free fall before hitting the sea east of Florida. This was likely fabricated and no recording exists, as the crew may have been unconscious from loss of cabin pressure and the astronauts did not wear individual voice recorders.

Prospect of crew escape

Unlike other spacecraft, crew escape was not possible during powered flight of the Space Shuttle. Launch escape systems had been considered during the Space Shuttle’s development, but NASA’s conclusion was that the Space Shuttle’s expected high reliability would preclude the need for one. Modified SR-71 Blackbird ejection seats and full pressure suits were used for the two-person crews on the first four Space Shuttle orbital test flights, but they were disabled and later removed for the operational flights.  Escape options for the operational flights were considered, but a decision was made not to implement them because of their complexity, high cost, and heavy weight. After the disaster, a system was implemented to allow the crew to escape in gliding flight, but this system would not have been usable to escape an explosion during ascent.

Funeral ceremonies

On April 29, 1986, the astronauts’ remains were transferred on a C-141 Starlifter aircraft from Kennedy Space Center to the military mortuary at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware. Their caskets were each draped with an American flag and carried past an honor guard and followed by an astronaut escort. After the remains arrived at Dover Air Force Base, they were transferred to the families of the crew members. Scobee and Smith were buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Onizuka was buried at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii. McNair was buried in Rest Lawn Memorial Park in Lake City, South Carolina, but his remains were later moved within the town to the Dr. Ronald E. McNair Memorial Park. McAuliffe was buried at Calvary Cemetery in Concord, New Hampshire. Jarvis was cremated, and his ashes were scattered in the Pacific Ocean. Unidentified crew remains were buried at the Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial in Arlington on May 20, 1986.

Source: Wikipedia

…the crew was not onboard?

It could be just a coincidence?

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster – Section 1: Space Shuttle & Crew

SECTION 1

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(January 28, 1986 — Cape Canaveral)


 

The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster was a fatal accident in the United States space program that occurred on January 28, 1986, when the Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the death of all seven crew members aboard; it was the first fatal accident involving an American spacecraft in flight. The mission, designated STS-51-L, was the tenth flight for the Challenger orbiter and twenty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle fleet. The crew was scheduled to deploy a communications satellite and study Halley’s Comet while they were in orbit. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:39 a.m. EST (16:39 UTC).

The disaster was caused by the failure of the two redundant O-ring seals in a joint in the Space Shuttle’s right solid rocket booster (SRB). The record-low temperatures of the launch reduced the elasticity of the rubber O-rings, reducing their ability to seal the joints. The broken seals caused a breach into the joint shortly after liftoff, which allowed pressurized gas from within the SRB to leak and burn through the wall to the adjacent external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB’s aft attachment, which caused it to crash into the external tank, which caused a structural failure of the external tank and an explosion. Following the explosion, the orbiter, which included the crew compartment, was broken up by aerodynamic forces.

The crew compartment and many other fragments from the Space Shuttle were recovered from the ocean floor after a three-month search-and-recovery operation. The exact timing of the deaths of the crew is unknown; several crew members are thought to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. By design, the orbiter had no escape system, and the impact of the crew compartment at terminal velocity with the ocean surface was too violent to be survivable.

The disaster resulted in a 32-month hiatus in the Space Shuttle program. President Ronald Reagan created the Rogers Commission to investigate the accident. The commission criticized NASA’s organizational culture and decision-making processes that had contributed to the accident. Test data from as early as 1977 had revealed a potentially catastrophic flaw in the SRBs’ O-rings. Neither NASA, nor Morton Thiokol (the SRB manufacturer), addressed or corrected the issue. NASA managers also disregarded warnings from engineers about the dangers of launching in cold temperatures and did not report these technical concerns to their superiors. As a result of the disaster, NASA established the Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance to address safety concerns better, and commercial satellites would be launched on expendable launch vehicles rather than deployed from the crewed orbiter. To replace Challenger, construction of Endeavour was approved in 1987, and the new orbiter first flew in 1992. Later Space Shuttle missions launched with redesigned SRBs, and crews wore pressure suits during ascent and reentry.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

ARTICLE INDEX

THE TRUTH

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.1 – Space Shuttle Challenger STS-6 (1983)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Space Shuttle Challenger
STS-6

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER


 

Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) was a Space Shuttle orbiter manufactured by Rockwell International and operated by NASA. Named after the commanding ship of a nineteenth-century scientific expedition that traveled the world, Challenger was the second Space Shuttle orbiter to fly into space after Columbia, and launched on its maiden flight in April 1983. It was destroyed in January 1986 soon after launch in an accident that killed all seven crewmembers aboard. Initially manufactured as a test article not intended for spaceflight, it was utilized for ground testing of the Space Shuttle orbiter’s structural design. However, after NASA found that their original plan to upgrade Enterprise for spaceflight would be more expensive than upgrading Challenger, the orbiter was pressed into operational service in the Space Shuttle program. Lessons learned from the first orbital flights of Columbia led to Challenger‘s design possessing fewer thermal protection system tiles and a lighter fuselage and wings. This led to it being 1,000 kilograms (2,200 pounds) lighter than Columbia, though still 2,600 kilograms (5,700 pounds) heavier than Discovery.

During its three years of operation, Challenger was flown on ten missions in the Space Shuttle program, spending over 62 days in space and completing almost 1,000 orbits around Earth. Following its maiden flight, Challenger supplanted Columbia as the leader of the Space Shuttle fleet, being the most-flown orbiter during all three years of its operation while Columbia itself was seldom used during the same time frame. Challenger was used for numerous civilian satellite launches, such as the first tracking and data relay satellite, the Palapa B communications satellites, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. It was also used as a test bed for the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and served as the platform to repair the malfunctioning SolarMax telescope. In addition, three consecutive Spacelab missions were conducted with the orbiter in 1985, one of which being the first German crewed spaceflight mission. Passengers carried into orbit by Challenger include the first American female astronaut, the first American female spacewalker, the first African-American astronaut, and the first Canadian astronaut.

On its tenth flight in January 1986, Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after liftoff, killing the seven-member crew of STS-51-L that included Christa McAuliffe, who would have been the first teacher in space. The Rogers Commission convened shortly afterwards concluded that an O-ring seal in one of Challenger‘s solid rocket boosters failed to contain pressurized burning gas that leaked out of the booster, causing a structural failure of Challenger‘s external tank and the orbiter’s subsequent disintegration due to aerodynamic forces. NASA’s organizational culture was also scrutinized by the Rogers Commission, and the Space Shuttle program’s goal of replacing the United States’ expendable launch systems was cast into doubt. The loss of Challenger and its crew led to a broad rescope of the program, and numerous aspects – such as launches from Vandenberg, the MMU, and Shuttle-Centaur – were scrapped to improve crew safety; Challenger and Atlantis were the only orbiters modified to conduct Shuttle-Centaur launches. The recovered remains of the orbiter are mostly buried in a missile silo located at Cape Canaveral LC-31, though one piece is on display at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.2 – Challenger in Orbit During STS-7 (1983)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger in Orbit
During STS-7

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER
(STS-7, 1983)


 

STS-7 was NASA’s seventh Space Shuttle mission, and the second mission for the Space Shuttle Challenger. During the mission, Challenger deployed several satellites into orbit. The shuttle launched from Kennedy Space Center on June 18, 1983, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on June 24, 1983. STS-7 carried Sally Ride, America’s first female astronaut.

Mission summary

STS-7 began on June 18, 1983, with an on-time liftoff at 07:33:00 a.m. EDT. It was the first spaceflight of an American woman (Ride), the largest crew to fly in a single spacecraft up to that time (five people), and the first flight that included members of NASA’s Group 8 astronaut class, which had been selected in 1978 to fly the Space Shuttle. President Ronald Reagan also sent his personal favorite Jelly Belly jelly beans with the astronauts, making them the first jelly beans in space. The crew had already ate lunch with the president at the White House on June 1, the first time that a crew did so before launch rather than after.

The crew of STS-7 included Robert Crippen, commander, making his second Shuttle flight; Frederick Hauck, pilot; and Sally Ride, John M. Fabian and Norman Thagard, all mission specialists. Thagard conducted medical tests concerning Space adaptation syndrome, a bout of nausea frequently experienced by astronauts during the early phase of a space flight.

Two communications satellites – Anik C2 for Telesat of Canada, and Palapa B1 for Indonesia – were successfully deployed during the first two days of the mission; both were Hughes-built HS-376-series satellites. The mission also carried the first Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-1), which was built by the West German aerospace firm Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB). SPAS-1 was unique in that it was designed to operate in the payload bay or be deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) as a free-flying satellite. It carried 10 experiments to study formation of metal alloys in microgravity, the operation of heat pipes, instruments for remote sensing observations, and a mass spectrometer to identify various gases in the payload bay. It was deployed by the Canadarm and flew alongside and over Challenger for several hours, performing various maneuvers, while a U.S.-supplied camera mounted on SPAS-1 took pictures of the orbiter. The Canadarm later grappled the pallet and returned it to the payload bay.

STS-7 also carried seven Getaway Special (GAS) canisters, which contained a wide variety of experiments, as well as the OSTA-2 payload, a joint U.S.-West Germany scientific pallet payload. Finally, the orbiter’s Ku-band antenna was able to relay data through the U.S. tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) to a ground terminal for the first time.

STS-7 was scheduled to make the first orbiter landing at Kennedy Space Center’s then-new Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Unacceptable weather forced a change to Runway 15 at Edwards Air Force Base. The landing took place on June 24, 1983, at 06:56:59 a.m. PDT. The mission lasted 6 days, 2 hours, 23 minutes, and 59 seconds, and covered about 3,570,000 km (2,220,000 mi) during 97 orbits of the Earth. Challenger was returned to KSC on June 29, 1983.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.3 – Shuttle Carried to Launch Pad (Dec 22, 1985)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Shuttle Carried
to Launch Pad

The Official Story

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER
LAUNCH COMPLEX 39B


 

Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B) is the second of Launch Complex 39’s two launch pads, located at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Merritt Island, Florida. The pad, along with Launch Complex 39A, were first designed for the Saturn V launch vehicle, which at the time was the United States’ most powerful rocket. Typically used to launch NASA’s crewed spaceflight missions since the late 1960s, the pad is currently being reconfigured for use by the agency’s Space Launch System rocket, a Shuttle-derived launch vehicle which will be used in the Artemis program and subsequent Moon to Mars campaigns. The pad had also been leased for use by NASA to aerospace company Northrop Grumman, for use as a launch site for their Shuttle-derived OmegA launch vehicle, for National Security Space Launch flights and commercial launches, before the OmegA was cancelled.

Space Shuttle

With the advent of the Space Shuttle program in the early 1980s, the original structure of the launch pads were remodeled for the needs of the Space Shuttle. Pad 39A hosted all Space Shuttle launches until January 1986, when Space Shuttle Challenger would become the first to launch from pad 39B during the ill-fated STS-51-L mission, which ended with the destruction of Challenger and the death of the mission’s crew a minute into the flight.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.4 – Flight Crew

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger Flight Crew

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Space Shuttle Mission)


 

The Space Shuttle mission, named STS-51-L, was the twenty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of Challenger. The crew was announced on January 27, 1985, and was commanded by Dick Scobee. Michael Smith was assigned as the pilot, and the mission specialists were Ellison Onizuka, Judith Resnik, and Ronald McNair. The two payload specialists were Gregory Jarvis, who was assigned to conduct research for the Hughes Aircraft Company, and Christa McAuliffe, who flew as part of the Teacher in Space Project.

The primary mission of the Challenger crew was to use an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) to deploy a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), named TDRS-B, that would have been part of a constellation to enable constant communication with orbiting spacecraft. The crew also planned to study Halley’s Comet as it passed near the sun,  and deploy and retrieve a SPARTAN satellite.

The mission was originally scheduled for July 1985, but was delayed to November and then to January 1986. The mission was scheduled to launch on January 22, but was delayed until January 28.

Source: Wikipedia

PositionAstronaut
CommanderFrancis R. “Dick” Scobee
Would have been second spaceflight
PilotMichael J. Smith
Would have been first spaceflight
Mission Specialist 1Ellison S. Onizuka
Would have been second spaceflight
Mission Specialist 2Judith A. Resnik
Would have been second spaceflight
Mission Specialist 3Ronald E. McNair
Would have been second spaceflight
Payload Specialist 1Gregory B. Jarvis
Would have been first spaceflight
Hughes Space and Communications
Payload Specialist 2S. Christa McAuliffe
Would have been first spaceflight
Teacher in Space Project

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.5 – Dick Scobee (Commander)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Dick Scobee

The Official Story

DICK SCOBEE
(Commander, Space Shuttle Challenger)


 

Francis Richard Scobee (May 19, 1939 – January 28, 1986) was an American pilot, engineer, and astronaut. He was killed while he was commanding the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986, which suffered catastrophic booster failure during launch of the STS-51-L mission.

He held a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering, graduating from the University of Arizona in 1965. He was a reciprocating engine mechanic for the United States Air Force and served as a combat aviator in the Vietnam War.

Selected for NASA Astronaut Corps in January 1978, Scobee completed his training in August 1979. While awaiting his first orbital spaceflight mission, he served as an instructor pilot for the Shuttle’s 747 carrier aircraft. In April 1984, he piloted Challenger mission STS-41-C, which successfully deployed one satellite and repaired another.

Challenger

Scobee was assigned commander for the ill-fated STS-51-L mission. The mission, designed to deploy a satellite to study the approaching Halley’s Comet and to inaugurate the Teacher in Space Project, was delayed numerous times due to bad weather and technical glitches. When the mission finally did lift off the pad, a solid rocket booster O-ring seal failure destroyed the shuttle 73 seconds into the flight, killing Scobee and the other six crew members; the disaster, viewed live on national television, prompted several days of national mourning, as well as a major shakeup at NASA. He died a lieutenant colonel. At T+68 into the mission, the CAPCOM Richard Covey informed the crew that they were “go at throttle up”, and Scobee confirmed the call—his last recorded words were his response, “Roger, go at throttle up.” The shuttle broke up at an altitude of 48,000 feet (14.6 km).

Some experts, including one of NASA’s lead investigators, Robert Overmyer, who was closest to Scobee, believed most if not all of the crew were alive and possibly conscious during the entire descent until impact with the ocean. After the investigation, Overmyer stated, “I not only flew with Dick Scobee, we owned a plane together, and I know Scob did everything he could to save his crew. Scob fought for any and every edge to survive. He flew that ship without wings all the way down.”

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.6 – Michael J. Smith (Pilot)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Michael J. Smith

The Official Story

MICHAEL J. SMITH
(Pilot, Space Shuttle Challenger)


 

Michael John Smith (April 30, 1945 – January 28, 1986), (Capt USN) was an American engineer and astronaut. He served as the pilot of the Space Shuttle Challenger when it was destroyed during the STS-51-L mission, when it broke up 73 seconds into the flight, and at an altitude of 48,000 feet (14.6 km), killing all 7 crew members. Smith’s voice was the last one heard on the Challenger voice recorder.

During his Naval career, Smith flew 28 different types of civilian and military aircraft and logged 4,867 hours of flying time. Following the Challenger disaster, he was promoted posthumously by Congress to the rank of captain, and has had a chair named in his honor at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, California.

Astronaut career

Smith was selected for the astronaut program in May 1980; he served as a commander in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL), Deputy Chief of Aircraft Operations Division, Technical Assistant to the Director, Flight Operations Directorate, and was also assigned to the Astronaut Office Development and Test Group. In addition to being pilot on the Challenger, he had been slated to pilot a future Shuttle mission (STS-61-I) which had been scheduled for the Fall of 1986. Smith’s voice was the last one heard on the flight deck tape recorder aboard Challenger; his final remark was “Uh oh.”

Following the Challenger disaster, examination of the recovered vehicle cockpit revealed that three of the crew members’ Personal Egress Air Packs were activated: those of Smith, mission specialist Judith Resnik, and mission specialist Ellison Onizuka. The location of Smith’s activation switch, on the back side of his seat, means that either Resnik or Onizuka could have activated it for him. This is the only evidence available from the disaster that shows Onizuka and Resnik were alive after the cockpit separated from the vehicle. However, if the cabin had lost pressure, the packs alone would not have sustained the crew during the two-minute descent.

While analyzing the wreckage, investigators discovered that several electrical system switches on Smith’s right-hand panel had been moved from their usual launch positions. Fellow Astronaut Richard Mullane wrote, “These switches were protected with lever locks that required them to be pulled outward against a spring force before they could be moved to a new position.” Later tests established that neither the force of the explosion, nor the impact with the ocean could have moved them indicating that he made the switch changes, presumably in an attempt to restore electrical power to the cockpit after the crew cabin detached from the rest of the orbiter.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.7 – Ronald McNair (Mission Specialist)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Ronald McNair

The Official Story

RONALD MCNAIR
(Mission Specialist, Space Shuttle Challenger)


 

Ronald Erwin McNair (October 21, 1950 – January 28, 1986) was an American NASA astronaut and physicist. He died during the launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-L, in which he was serving as one of three mission specialists in a crew of seven.

Prior to the Challenger disaster, he flew as a mission specialist on STS-41-B aboard Challenger from February 3 to February 11, 1984, becoming the second African American and the first Baháʼí to fly in space.

Astronaut career

In 1978, McNair was selected as one of thirty-five applicants from a pool of ten thousand for the NASA astronaut program. He flew as a mission specialist on STS-41-B aboard Challenger from February 3 to February 11, 1984, becoming the second African American to fly in space.

Challenger disaster

Following the STS-41-B mission, McNair was selected for STS-51-L as one of three mission specialists in a crew of seven. The mission launched on January 28, 1986. He was killed when Challenger disintegrated nine miles above the Atlantic Ocean 73 seconds after liftoff. The disintegration also killed six other crew members.

He was initially buried at Rest Lawn Memorial Park in Lake City, South Carolina. His remains were disinterred in 2004 and moved to Ronald E. McNair Memorial Park, located elsewhere in Lake City.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.8 – Ellison Onizuka (Mission Specialist)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Ellison Onizuka

The Official Story

ELLISON ONIZUKA
(Mission Specialist, Space Shuttle Challenger)


 

Ellison Shoji Onizuka (June 24, 1946 – January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut, engineer, and USAF test pilot from Kealakekua, Hawaii, who successfully flew into space with the Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-51-C. He died in the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger, on which he was serving as Mission Specialist for mission STS-51-L. He was the first Asian American and the first person of Japanese origin to reach space.

NASA career

Onizuka was selected for the astronaut program in January 1978 and completed one year of evaluation and training in August 1979. Later, he worked in the experimentation team, Orbiter test team, and launch support crew at Kennedy Space Center for the STS-1 and STS-2. At NASA, he worked on the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) test and revision software team.

Onizuka’s first space mission took place on January 24, 1985, with the launch of mission STS 51-C on Space Shuttle Discovery, the first Space Shuttle mission for the Department of Defense. He was accompanied by Commander Ken Mattingly, Pilot Loren Shriver, fellow Mission Specialist James Buchli, and Payload Specialist Gary E. Payton. During the mission, he was responsible for the activities of the primary payloads, which included the unfolding of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) surface. After 48 orbits around the Earth, Discovery landed at Kennedy Space Center on January 27, 1985. He had completed a total of 74 hours in space.

Onizuka was assigned to the mission STS 51-L on the Space Shuttle Challenger that took off from Kennedy Space Center at 11:38:00 EST (16:38:00 UTC) on January 28, 1986. The other Challenger crew members were commander Dick Scobee, pilot Michael J. Smith, mission specialists Ronald McNair, Judith Resnik, and payload specialists Gregory Jarvis and Christa McAuliffe. It was destroyed when a flame jet leaking from a solid rocket booster ruptured the liquid hydrogen fuel tank 73 seconds after launch. All seven crew members were killed.

Following the Challenger disaster, examination of the recovered vehicle cockpit revealed that three of the crew members’ Personal Egress Air Packs were activated: those of Onizuka, mission specialist Judith Resnik, and pilot Michael Smith. The location of Smith’s activation switch, on the back side of his seat, means that either Resnik or Onizuka could have activated it for him. This is the only evidence available from the disaster that shows Onizuka and Resnik were alive after the cockpit separated from the vehicle. However, if the cabin had lost pressure, the packs alone would not have sustained the crew during the two-minute descent.

Onizuka was buried at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii. At the time of his death, he held the rank of lieutenant colonel. Posthumously, he was promoted to the rank of colonel.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.9 – Judith Resnik (Mission Specialist)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Judith Resnik

The Official Story

JUDITH RESNIK
(Mission Specialist, Space Shuttle Challenger)


 

Judith Arlene Resnik (April 5, 1949 – January 28, 1986) was an American electrical engineer, software engineer, biomedical engineer, pilot and NASA astronaut who died in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. Resnik was the fourth woman, the second American woman, and the first Jewish woman of any nationality to fly in space, logging 145 hours in orbit.

Recognized while still a child for her intellectual brilliance, Resnik was accepted at Carnegie Mellon University after being one of only sixteen women in the history of the United States to have attained a perfect score on the SAT exam at the time. She went on to graduate with a degree in electrical engineering from Carnegie Mellon before attaining a PhD in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland. Resnik went on to work for RCA as an engineer on Navy missile and radar projects, was a senior systems engineer for Xerox Corporation and published research on special-purpose integrated circuitry. She was also a pilot and made research contributions to biomedical engineering as a research fellow at the National Institutes of Health.

At age 28, Resnik was selected by NASA as a mission specialist. She was part of NASA Astronaut Group 8, the first group to include women. While training on the astronaut program, she developed software and operating procedures for NASA missions. Her first space flight was the STS-41-D mission in August and September 1984, the twelfth Space Shuttle flight, and the maiden voyage of the Space Shuttle Discovery. Her duties included operating the Space Shuttle’s robotic arm. Her second space flight was mission STS-51-L in January 1986 aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger. She died when it broke up shortly after liftoff.

Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

On January 29, 1985, NASA announced that Resnik had been assigned to the crew of STS-51-L. The main objective of this mission was to launch TDRS-B, the second in a series of NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellites. It would also carry the Spartan (Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy), which would use two ultraviolet spectrometers to study the tail of Comet Halley. Resnik was primarily responsible for the operation of the RMS and, with fellow astronaut Ronald McNair, would deploy and later retrieve the Spartan. The flight would also carry Christa McAuliffe, a teacher-observer selected as part of NASA’s Teacher in Space Project. Resnik was part of the team of astronauts who flew to Washington, D.C., to speak to the 113 finalists, and provide them an insider’s view of a Space Shuttle mission. They were taken to the National Air and Space Museum, where they viewed The Dream is Alive with its scenes of Resnik deploying a satellite and eating and sleeping in space. She told them that it was a shame that they could not all fly in space, but privately she disagreed with NASA’s decision to send non-astronauts on the Space Shuttle. Resnik’s assignment was tied to McAuliffe’s; NASA wanted McAuliffe to fly with a veteran female astronaut.

Initially scheduled for January 24, 1986, the launch was delayed until January 28 by rain, high winds and a troublesome bolt on the Space Shuttle Challenger‘s hatch. Resnik’s father and stepmother, and her brother and his family watched the launch from the VIP area, as did her Firestone High math teacher. She also invited Tom Selleck, but he declined the invitation. She carried with her a locket for her niece, and signet ring for her nephew, and a cigarette lighter for Nahmi. Challenger lifted off from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39B at 11:38 on January 28. A minute later Challenger broke up, torn apart by aerodynamic forces after a catastrophic failure of an O-ring seal on the starboard solid rocket booster. The cabin remained intact until it hit the water at 333 kilometres per hour (207 mph), killing all on board. Her last recorded words aboard Challenger regarded scanning for “LVLH” (low-vertical/low-horizontal), reminding the cockpit crew of a switch configuration change to the attitude direction indicator.

Following the Challenger disaster, examination of the recovered vehicle cockpit revealed that the Personal Egress Air Packs were activated for pilot Michael J. Smith and two other crew members. The location of Smith’s activation switch on the back of his seat means either Resnik or Onizuka likely activated it for him. Mike Mullane wrote:

“Mike Smith’s PEAP had been turned on by Judy or El, I wondered if I would have had the presence of mind to do the same thing had I been in Challenger’s cockpit. Or would I have been locked in a catatonic paralysis of fear? There had been nothing in our training concerning the activation of a PEAP in the event of an in-flight emergency. The fact that Judy or El had done so for Mike Smith made them heroic in my mind. They had been able to block out the terrifying sights and sounds and motions of Challenger’s destruction and had reached for that switch. It was the type of thing a true astronaut would do—maintain their cool in the direst of circumstances.”

This is the only evidence that shows Onizuka and Resnik were alive after the cockpit separated from the vehicle. If the cabin had lost pressure, the air packs alone would not have sustained the crew during the two-minute descent. Resnik’s remains were recovered from the crashed vehicle cockpit by Navy divers from the USS Preserver. They were cremated and buried in Arlington National Cemetery on May 20, 1986, comingled with those of her six Challenger crewmates .

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.10 – Gregory Jarvis (Payload Specialist)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Gregory Jarvis

The Official Story

GREGORY JARVIS
(Payload Specialist, Space Shuttle Challenger)


 

Gregory Bruce Jarvis (August 24, 1944 – January 28, 1986) was an American engineer and astronaut who died during the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-L, where he was serving as payload specialist for Hughes Aircraft.

Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

In June 1984, Jarvis was one of two Hughes Aircraft employees selected as candidates for the Space Shuttle program. He planned to conduct experiments regarding the effects of weightlessness on fluids. Jarvis was originally scheduled to make his shuttle flight in April 1985, but his spot on that flight was replaced by U.S. senator Jake Garn. His flight was rescheduled for early January 1986, but he was again replaced – this time by U.S. representative Bill Nelson.

Jarvis was Payload Specialist 2 on STS-51-L which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 11:38:00 EST on January 28, 1986. The crew on board the Orbiter Challenger included Commander Dick Scobee, pilot Michael J. Smith (USN), mission specialists Dr. Ronald McNair, Lt. Col. Ellison Onizuka (USAF), Dr. Judith Resnik, and fellow civilian payload specialist Christa McAuliffe. The entire STS-51-L crew died on January 28, 1986, when Challenger broke up during launch.

The remains of all seven astronauts from the Challenger disaster were discovered in the crew decks on the ocean floor. Jarvis’ body was discovered in the lower mid-deck along with McNair and McAuliffe. During salvage operations to raise the crew deck from the ocean floor, his body escaped from the wreckage, floated to the surface, and disappeared back into the sea. On April 15, 1986, on the last scheduled attempt to recover wreckage, it was rediscovered and returned to shore. Jarvis was cremated and his ashes scattered in the Pacific Ocean.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.11 – Christa McAuliffe (Payload Specialist & Teacher)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Christa McAuliffe

The Official Story

CHRISTA MCAULIFFE
(Payload Specialist/Teacher,
Space Shuttle Challenger)


 

Sharon Christa McAuliffe (September 2, 1948 – January 28, 1986) was an American teacher and astronaut from Concord, New Hampshire, who was killed on the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-L where she was serving as a payload specialist.

She received her bachelor’s degree in education and history from Framingham State College in 1970 and her master’s degree in education, supervision and administration from Bowie State University in 1978. She took a teaching position as a social studies teacher at Concord High School in New Hampshire in 1983.

In 1985, McAuliffe was selected from more than 11,000 applicants to the NASA Teacher in Space Project and was scheduled to become the first teacher to fly in space. As a member of mission STS-51-L, she was planning to conduct experiments and teach two lessons from Challenger. On January 28, 1986, the shuttle broke apart 1 minute 13 seconds after launch, resulting in the loss of all onboard. After her death, several schools were named in her honor, and she was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 2004.

Disaster and aftermath

On January 28, 1986, McAuliffe boarded Challenger with the other six crew members of STS-51-L. Seventy-three seconds into its flight at an altitude of 48,000 ft (14.630 km), the shuttle broke apart, resulting in the deaths of all seven crew members.

According to NASA, it was in part because of the excitement over her presence on the shuttle that the accident had such a significant effect on the nation. Many schoolchildren were viewing the launch live, and media coverage of the accident was extensive.

The Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident—also known as the Rogers Commission—was formed to investigate the disaster. It determined that the accident was due to a failure of rubber O-rings made by Morton-Thiokol that provided a pressure seal in the aft field joint of the shuttle’s right Solid Rocket Booster. The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a design flaw, as their performance could be too easily compromised by factors that included the low temperature on the day of launch. The Commission found that O-ring resiliency is directly related to temperature and due to the low temperature at launch—36 degrees Fahrenheit or 15 degrees lower than the next coldest previous launch—it was probable the O-rings had not provided a proper seal.

Barbara Morgan, her backup, became a professional astronaut in January 1998, and flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-118, to the International Space Station, on August 8, 2007, aboard Endeavour, the orbiter that replaced Challenger.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 1.12 – Challenger Insignia

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger Insignia

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Mission Insignia)


 

Francis R. “Dick” Scobee asked Kennedy Space Center engineer Ernie Reyes to design the mission patch seen above to represent the mission STS-51-L. In it, Challenger is depicted launching from Florida and soaring into space to carry out a variety of goals. Among the prescribed duties of the five astronauts and two payload specialists (represented by the seven stars of the U.S. flag) was observation and photography of Halley’s Comet, backdropped against the U.S. flag in the insignia. Surnames of the crew members encircle the scene, with the payload specialists being recognized below. The surname of the first teacher in space, S. Christa McAuliffe, is followed by a symbolic apple.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster – Section 2: Shuttle Disintegration

SECTION 2

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(January 28, 1986 — Cape Canaveral)


 

The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster was a fatal accident in the United States space program that occurred on January 28, 1986, when the Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the death of all seven crew members aboard; it was the first fatal accident involving an American spacecraft in flight. The mission, designated STS-51-L, was the tenth flight for the Challenger orbiter and twenty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle fleet. The crew was scheduled to deploy a communications satellite and study Halley’s Comet while they were in orbit. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:39 a.m. EST (16:39 UTC).

The disaster was caused by the failure of the two redundant O-ring seals in a joint in the Space Shuttle’s right solid rocket booster (SRB). The record-low temperatures of the launch reduced the elasticity of the rubber O-rings, reducing their ability to seal the joints. The broken seals caused a breach into the joint shortly after liftoff, which allowed pressurized gas from within the SRB to leak and burn through the wall to the adjacent external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB’s aft attachment, which caused it to crash into the external tank, which caused a structural failure of the external tank and an explosion. Following the explosion, the orbiter, which included the crew compartment, was broken up by aerodynamic forces.

The crew compartment and many other fragments from the Space Shuttle were recovered from the ocean floor after a three-month search-and-recovery operation. The exact timing of the deaths of the crew is unknown; several crew members are thought to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. By design, the orbiter had no escape system, and the impact of the crew compartment at terminal velocity with the ocean surface was too violent to be survivable.

The disaster resulted in a 32-month hiatus in the Space Shuttle program. President Ronald Reagan created the Rogers Commission to investigate the accident. The commission criticized NASA’s organizational culture and decision-making processes that had contributed to the accident. Test data from as early as 1977 had revealed a potentially catastrophic flaw in the SRBs’ O-rings. Neither NASA, nor Morton Thiokol (the SRB manufacturer), addressed or corrected the issue. NASA managers also disregarded warnings from engineers about the dangers of launching in cold temperatures and did not report these technical concerns to their superiors. As a result of the disaster, NASA established the Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance to address safety concerns better, and commercial satellites would be launched on expendable launch vehicles rather than deployed from the crewed orbiter. To replace Challenger, construction of Endeavour was approved in 1987, and the new orbiter first flew in 1992. Later Space Shuttle missions launched with redesigned SRBs, and crews wore pressure suits during ascent and reentry.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

ARTICLE INDEX

THE TRUTH

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.1 – Icicles on the Launch Tower

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Icicles on the Launch Tower

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Decision to Launch)


 

The air temperature on January 28 was predicted to be a record-low for a Space Shuttle launch.  The air temperature was forecast to drop to 18 °F (−8 °C) overnight before rising to 22 °F (−6 °C) at 6:00 a.m. and 26 °F (−3 °C) at the scheduled launch time of 9:38 am. Based upon O-ring erosion that had occurred in warmer launches, Morton Thiokol engineers were concerned over the effect the record-cold temperatures would have on the seal provided by the SRB O-rings for the launch. Cecil Houston, the manager of the KSC office of the Marshall Space Flight Center, set up a conference call on the evening of January 27 to discuss the safety of the launch. Morton Thiokol engineers expressed their concerns about the effect of low temperatures on the resilience of the rubber O-rings. As the colder temperatures lowered the elasticity of the rubber O-rings, the engineers feared that the O-rings would not be extruded to form a seal at the time of launch. The engineers argued that they did not have enough data to determine whether the O-rings would seal at temperatures colder than 53 °F (12 °C), the coldest launch of the Space Shuttle to date.  Morton Thiokol employees Robert Lund, the Vice President of Engineering, and Joe Kilminster, the Vice President of the Space Booster Programs, recommended against launching until the temperature was above 53 °F (12 °C).

The teleconference held a recess to allow for private discussion amongst Morton Thiokol management. When it resumed, Morton Thiokol leadership had changed their opinion and stated that the evidence presented on the failure of the O-rings was inconclusive and that there was a substantial margin of error in the event of a failure or erosion. They stated that their decision was to proceed with the launch. Morton Thiokol leadership submitted a recommendation for launch, and the teleconference ended. Lawrence Mulloy, the NASA SRB project manager, called Arnold Aldrich, the NASA Mission Management Team Leader, to discuss the launch decision and weather concerns, but did not mention the O-ring discussion; the two agreed to proceed with the launch.

An overnight measurement taken by the KSC Ice Team recorded the left SRB was 25 °F (−4 °C) and the right SRB was 8 °F (−13 °C). These measurements were recorded for engineering data and not reported, because the temperature of the SRBs was not part of the Launch Commit Criteria. In addition to its effect on the O-rings, the cold temperatures caused ice to form on the fixed service structure. To keep pipes from freezing, water was slowly run from the system; it could not be entirely drained because of the upcoming Space Shuttle launch. As a result, ice formed from 240 feet (73 m) down in the freezing temperatures. Engineers at Rockwell International, which manufactured the orbiter, were concerned that ice would be violently thrown during launch and could potentially damage the orbiter’s thermal protection system or be aspirated into one of the engines. Rocco Petrone, the head of Rockwell’s space transportation division, and his team determined that the potential damage from ice made the mission unsafe to fly. Arnold Aldrich consulted with engineers at KSC and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) who advised him that ice did not threaten the safety of the orbiter, and he decided to proceed with the launch. The launch was delayed for an additional hour to allow more ice to melt. The ice team performed an inspection at T–20 minutes which indicated that the ice was melting, and Challenger was cleared to launch at 11:38 am. EST, with an air temperature of 36 °F (2 °C).

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.2 – Space Shuttle Launch

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Space Shuttle Launch

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Liftoff and Initial Ascent)


 

At T+0, Challenger launched from the Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B) at 11:38:00 a.m. Beginning at T+0.678 until T+3.375 seconds, nine puffs of dark gray smoke were recorded escaping from the right-hand SRB near the aft strut that attached the booster to the ET. It was later determined that these smoke puffs were caused by joint rotation in the aft field joint of the right-hand SRB at ignition. The cold temperature in the joint had prevented the O-rings from creating a seal. Rainfall from the preceding time on the launchpad had likely accumulated within the field joint, further compromising the sealing capability of the O-rings. As a result, hot gas was able to travel past the O-rings and erode them. Molten aluminum oxides from the burned propellant resealed the joint and created a temporary barrier against further hot gas and flame escaping through the field joint.  The Space Shuttle main engines (SSMEs) were throttled down as scheduled for maximum dynamic pressure (max q). During its ascent, the Space Shuttle encountered wind shear conditions beginning at T+37, but they were within design limits of the vehicle and were countered by the guidance system.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.3 – Solid Rocket Booster Smoke

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Solid Rocket Booster
Smoke

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Liftoff and Initial Ascent)


 

At T+0, Challenger launched from the Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B) at 11:38:00 a.m. Beginning at T+0.678 until T+3.375 seconds, nine puffs of dark gray smoke were recorded escaping from the right-hand SRB near the aft strut that attached the booster to the ET. It was later determined that these smoke puffs were caused by joint rotation in the aft field joint of the right-hand SRB at ignition. The cold temperature in the joint had prevented the O-rings from creating a seal. Rainfall from the preceding time on the launchpad had likely accumulated within the field joint, further compromising the sealing capability of the O-rings. As a result, hot gas was able to travel past the O-rings and erode them. Molten aluminum oxides from the burned propellant resealed the joint and created a temporary barrier against further hot gas and flame escaping through the field joint.  The Space Shuttle main engines (SSMEs) were throttled down as scheduled for maximum dynamic pressure (max q). During its ascent, the Space Shuttle encountered wind shear conditions beginning at T+37, but they were within design limits of the vehicle and were countered by the guidance system.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.4 – Booster Rocket Breach

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Booster Rocket Breach

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Plume)


 

At T+58.788, a tracking film camera captured the beginnings of a plume near the aft attach strut on the right SRB, right before the vehicle passed through max q at T+59.000. The high aerodynamic forces and wind shear likely broke the aluminum oxide seal that had replaced eroded O-rings, allowing the flame to burn through the joint. Within 1 second from when it was first recorded, the plume became well-defined, and the enlarging hole caused a drop in internal pressure in the right SRB. A leak had begun in the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank of the ET at T+64.660, as indicated by the changing shape of the plume. The SSMEs pivoted to compensate for the booster burn-through, which was creating an unexpected thrust on the vehicle. The pressure in the external LH2 tank began to drop at T+66.764 indicating that the flame had burned from the SRB into the tank. The crew and flight controllers made no indication they were aware of the vehicle and flight anomalies. At T+68, the CAPCOM, Richard O. Covey, told the crew that the SSMEs could throttle up to 104% thrust. In response to Covey, Scobee said, “Roger, go at throttle up”; this was the last communication from Challenger on the air-to-ground loop.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.5 – Challenger Enveloped in Flaming Liquid Propellant

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger Enveloped in
Flaming Liquid Propellant

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Vehicle Breakup)


 

At T+72.284, the right SRB pulled away from the aft strut that attached it to the ET, causing lateral acceleration that was felt by the crew. At the same time, pressure in the LH2 tank began dropping, accompanied by a large fireball on the side of the ET. Pilot Mike Smith said “Uh-oh,” which was the last speech recorded of the crew. At T+73.124, an explosion occurred at the aft dome of the LH2 tank, which pushed the LH2 tank forward into the liquid oxygen (LOX) tank, while the right SRB collided with the intertank structure. The resulting explosion engulfed the ET and orbiter. The orbiter, at an altitude of 46,000 feet (14 km), was broken into several large pieces from high aerodynamic forces as it traveled at Mach 1.92.  The two SRBs separated from the ET and continued in uncontrolled powered flight until the range safety officer (RSO) on the ground initiated their self-destruct charges at T+110.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.6 – Challenger Breakup

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger Breakup

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Vehicle Breakup)


 

At T+72.284, the right SRB pulled away from the aft strut that attached it to the ET, causing lateral acceleration that was felt by the crew. At the same time, pressure in the LH2 tank began dropping, accompanied by a large fireball on the side of the ET. Pilot Mike Smith said “Uh-oh,” which was the last speech recorded of the crew. At T+73.124, an explosion occurred at the aft dome of the LH2 tank, which pushed the LH2 tank forward into the liquid oxygen (LOX) tank, while the right SRB collided with the intertank structure. The resulting explosion engulfed the ET and orbiter. The orbiter, at an altitude of 46,000 feet (14 km), was broken into several large pieces from high aerodynamic forces as it traveled at Mach 1.92.  The two SRBs separated from the ET and continued in uncontrolled powered flight until the range safety officer (RSO) on the ground initiated their self-destruct charges at T+110.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.7 – Challenger Explosion

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger Explosion

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Ascent Failure and Disaster)


 

During the ascent phase, 73 seconds after liftoff, the vehicle experienced a catastrophic structural failure resulting in the loss of crew and vehicle. The Rogers Commission later determined the cause of the accident to have been the failure of the primary and secondary (backup) O-ring seals on Challenger‘s right Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). The failure of these seals allowed a flamethrower-like flare to impinge upon one of two aft SRB attach struts, which eventually failed, freeing the booster to pivot about its remaining attachment points. The forward part of the booster cylinder struck the external tank inter-tank area, leading to a structural failure of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) – the core structural component of the entire stack. A rapid burning of liberated propellants ensued. With the structural “backbone” of the stack compromised and breaking up, the SRBs flew off on their own, as did the orbiter, which rapidly disintegrated due to overwhelming aerodynamic forces. The launch had been approved despite a predicted ambient temperature of −3 °C (27 °F), well below the qualification limit of major components such as the SRBs, which had been certified for use only at temperatures above 4 °C (39 °F). Evidence found in the remnants of the crew cabin showed that several of the emergency Personal Egress Air Packs (PEAPs) carried by the astronauts had been manually activated, suggesting that forces experienced inside the cabin during breakup of the orbiter were not inherently fatal, and that at least three crew members were alive and capable of conscious action for a period following vehicle breakup. “Tracking reported that the vehicle had exploded and impacted the water in an area approximately located at 28.64° north, 80.28° west”.

Media coverage

Nationally televised coverage of the launch and explosion was provided by CNN. To promote the Teacher in Space program with McAuliffe as a crewmember, NASA had arranged for many US children to view the launch live at school. Press interest in the disaster increased in the following days; the number of reporters at KSC increased from 535 on the day of the launch to 1,467 reporters three days later. In the aftermath of the accident, NASA was criticized for not making key personnel available to the press. In the absence of information, the press published articles suggesting the external tank was the cause of the explosion. Until 2010, CNN’s live broadcast of the launch and disaster was the only known on-location video footage from within range of the launch site. Additional amateur and professional recordings have since become publicly available.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.8 – Challenger Remains

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger Remains

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Recovery of Debris)


 

Immediately after the disaster, the NASA Launch Recovery Director launched the two SRB recovery ships, MV Freedom Star and MV Liberty Star, to proceed to the impact area to recover debris, and requested the support of US military aircraft and ships. Owing to falling debris from the explosion, the RSO kept recovery forces from the impact area until 12:37 p.m. The size of the recovery operations increased through to 12 aircraft and 8 ships by 7:00 p.m. Surface operations recovered debris from the orbiter and ET. The surface recovery operations ended on February 7.

On January 31, the US Navy was tasked with submarine recovery operations. The search efforts prioritized the recovery of the right SRB, followed by the crew compartment, and then the remaining payload, orbiter pieces, and ET. The search for debris formally began on February 8 with the rescue and salvage ship USS Preserver, and eventually grew to sixteen ships, of which three were managed by NASA, four by the US Navy, one by the US Air Force and eight by independent contractors. The surface ships used side-scan sonar to make the initial search for debris and covered 486 square nautical miles (1,670 km2) at water depths between 70 feet (21 m) and 1,200 feet (370 m). The sonar operations discovered 881 potential locations for debris, of which 187 pieces were later confirmed to be from the Space Shuttle.

The debris from the SRBs was widely distributed due to the detonation of their linear shaped charges. The identification of SRB material was primarily conducted by crewed submarines and submersibles. The vehicles were dispatched to investigate potential debris located during the search phase. Surface ships lifted the SRB debris with the help of technical divers and underwater remotely operated vehicles to attach the necessary slings to raise the debris with cranes. The solid propellant in the SRBs posed a risk, as it became more volatile after being submerged. Recovered portions of the SRBs were kept wet during recovery, and their unused propellant was ignited once they were brought ashore. The failed joint on the right SRB was first located on sonar on March 1. Subsequent dives to 560 ft (170 m) by the NR-1 submarine on April 5 and the SEA-LINK I submersible on April 12 confirmed that it was the damaged field joint,  and it was successfully recovered on April 13. Of the 196,726 lb (89,233 kg) of both SRB shells, 102,500 lb (46,500 kg) was recovered, another 54,000 lb (24,000 kg) was found but not recovered, and 40,226 lb (18,246 kg) was never found.

The IUS that would have been used to boost the orbit of the TDRS-B satellite was one of the first pieces of debris recovered. There was no indication that there had been premature ignition of the IUS, which had been one of the suspected causes for the disaster. Debris from the three SSMEs was recovered from February 14 to 28,  and post-recovery analysis produced results consistent with functional engines suddenly losing their LH2 fuel supply. Deepwater recovery operations continued until April 29, with smaller scale, shallow recovery operations continuing until August 29. On December 17, 1996, two pieces of the orbiter were found at Cocoa Beach. All recovered non-organic debris from Challenger was buried in Cape Canaveral Air Force Station missile silos at LC-31 and LC-32.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.9 – Challenger Wreckage Remains

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger
Wreckage Remains

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Recovery of Debris)


 

Immediately after the disaster, the NASA Launch Recovery Director launched the two SRB recovery ships, MV Freedom Star and MV Liberty Star, to proceed to the impact area to recover debris, and requested the support of US military aircraft and ships. Owing to falling debris from the explosion, the RSO kept recovery forces from the impact area until 12:37 p.m. The size of the recovery operations increased through to 12 aircraft and 8 ships by 7:00 p.m. Surface operations recovered debris from the orbiter and ET. The surface recovery operations ended on February 7.

On January 31, the US Navy was tasked with submarine recovery operations. The search efforts prioritized the recovery of the right SRB, followed by the crew compartment, and then the remaining payload, orbiter pieces, and ET. The search for debris formally began on February 8 with the rescue and salvage ship USS Preserver, and eventually grew to sixteen ships, of which three were managed by NASA, four by the US Navy, one by the US Air Force and eight by independent contractors. The surface ships used side-scan sonar to make the initial search for debris and covered 486 square nautical miles (1,670 km2) at water depths between 70 feet (21 m) and 1,200 feet (370 m). The sonar operations discovered 881 potential locations for debris, of which 187 pieces were later confirmed to be from the Space Shuttle.

The debris from the SRBs was widely distributed due to the detonation of their linear shaped charges. The identification of SRB material was primarily conducted by crewed submarines and submersibles. The vehicles were dispatched to investigate potential debris located during the search phase. Surface ships lifted the SRB debris with the help of technical divers and underwater remotely operated vehicles to attach the necessary slings to raise the debris with cranes. The solid propellant in the SRBs posed a risk, as it became more volatile after being submerged. Recovered portions of the SRBs were kept wet during recovery, and their unused propellant was ignited once they were brought ashore. The failed joint on the right SRB was first located on sonar on March 1. Subsequent dives to 560 ft (170 m) by the NR-1 submarine on April 5 and the SEA-LINK I submersible on April 12 confirmed that it was the damaged field joint,  and it was successfully recovered on April 13. Of the 196,726 lb (89,233 kg) of both SRB shells, 102,500 lb (46,500 kg) was recovered, another 54,000 lb (24,000 kg) was found but not recovered, and 40,226 lb (18,246 kg) was never found.

The IUS that would have been used to boost the orbit of the TDRS-B satellite was one of the first pieces of debris recovered. There was no indication that there had been premature ignition of the IUS, which had been one of the suspected causes for the disaster. Debris from the three SSMEs was recovered from February 14 to 28,  and post-recovery analysis produced results consistent with functional engines suddenly losing their LH2 fuel supply. Deepwater recovery operations continued until April 29, with smaller scale, shallow recovery operations continuing until August 29. On December 17, 1996, two pieces of the orbiter were found at Cocoa Beach. All recovered non-organic debris from Challenger was buried in Cape Canaveral Air Force Station missile silos at LC-31 and LC-32.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 2.10 – Recovered Right Solid Rocket Booster

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Recovered Right
Solid Rocket Booster

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Recovery of Debris)


 

Immediately after the disaster, the NASA Launch Recovery Director launched the two SRB recovery ships, MV Freedom Star and MV Liberty Star, to proceed to the impact area to recover debris, and requested the support of US military aircraft and ships. Owing to falling debris from the explosion, the RSO kept recovery forces from the impact area until 12:37 p.m. The size of the recovery operations increased through to 12 aircraft and 8 ships by 7:00 p.m. Surface operations recovered debris from the orbiter and ET. The surface recovery operations ended on February 7.

On January 31, the US Navy was tasked with submarine recovery operations. The search efforts prioritized the recovery of the right SRB, followed by the crew compartment, and then the remaining payload, orbiter pieces, and ET. The search for debris formally began on February 8 with the rescue and salvage ship USS Preserver, and eventually grew to sixteen ships, of which three were managed by NASA, four by the US Navy, one by the US Air Force and eight by independent contractors. The surface ships used side-scan sonar to make the initial search for debris and covered 486 square nautical miles (1,670 km2) at water depths between 70 feet (21 m) and 1,200 feet (370 m). The sonar operations discovered 881 potential locations for debris, of which 187 pieces were later confirmed to be from the Space Shuttle.

The debris from the SRBs was widely distributed due to the detonation of their linear shaped charges. The identification of SRB material was primarily conducted by crewed submarines and submersibles. The vehicles were dispatched to investigate potential debris located during the search phase. Surface ships lifted the SRB debris with the help of technical divers and underwater remotely operated vehicles to attach the necessary slings to raise the debris with cranes. The solid propellant in the SRBs posed a risk, as it became more volatile after being submerged. Recovered portions of the SRBs were kept wet during recovery, and their unused propellant was ignited once they were brought ashore. The failed joint on the right SRB was first located on sonar on March 1. Subsequent dives to 560 ft (170 m) by the NR-1 submarine on April 5 and the SEA-LINK I submersible on April 12 confirmed that it was the damaged field joint,  and it was successfully recovered on April 13. Of the 196,726 lb (89,233 kg) of both SRB shells, 102,500 lb (46,500 kg) was recovered, another 54,000 lb (24,000 kg) was found but not recovered, and 40,226 lb (18,246 kg) was never found.

The IUS that would have been used to boost the orbit of the TDRS-B satellite was one of the first pieces of debris recovered. There was no indication that there had been premature ignition of the IUS, which had been one of the suspected causes for the disaster. Debris from the three SSMEs was recovered from February 14 to 28,  and post-recovery analysis produced results consistent with functional engines suddenly losing their LH2 fuel supply. Deepwater recovery operations continued until April 29, with smaller scale, shallow recovery operations continuing until August 29. On December 17, 1996, two pieces of the orbiter were found at Cocoa Beach. All recovered non-organic debris from Challenger was buried in Cape Canaveral Air Force Station missile silos at LC-31 and LC-32.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster – Section 3: NASA

SECTION 3

The Official Story

NASA


 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space research.

NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion spacecraft, the Space Launch System, and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program, which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for uncrewed NASA launches.

NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System; advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program; exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft such as New Horizons; and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.

Leadership

James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon. He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

Historical spaceflight programs

Space Shuttle (1972–2011)

The Shuttle fleet lost two orbiters and 14 astronauts in two disasters: Challenger in 1986, and Columbia in 2003. While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building the Space Shuttle Endeavour from replacement parts, NASA did not build another orbiter to replace the second loss. NASA’s Space Shuttle program had 135 missions when the program ended with the successful landing of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. The program spanned 30 years with 355 separate astronauts sent into space, many on multiple missions.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

ARTICLE INDEX

THE TRUTH

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 3.1 – Jay Greene (Challenger Flight Director)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Jay Greene

The Official Story

JAY GREENE
(Ascent Flight Director,
Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster)


 

Jay Henry Greene (May 17, 1942 – October 8, 2017) was a NASA engineer. Between 2000 and 2004, he served as Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center, where his role consisted primarily of advising the Center Director. He worked as a FIDO flight controller during the Apollo Program and a flight director from 1982 to 1986, and as ascent flight director during the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

Greene worked for four years as a manager on the International Space Station project and received several awards for his work including the NASA Distinguished Service Medal. After his retirement in 2004 he served as a part-time consultant on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study. NASA Associate Administrator Rex Geveden described him as “a famous technical curmudgeon in the Agency”.

Challenger disaster

Greene was not originally assigned to work the STS-51-L mission, which was scheduled to launch a mere ten days after the landing of STS-61-C. Due to staffing issues, he was pulled from STS-61-C and reassigned as ascent flight director for STS-51-L. As flight director, Greene was involved in discussion (although by his own recollection, “not a lot”) about concerns with the cold weather and ice on the morning of the launch. These concerns had been worked primarily during the shift preceding his, and their conclusion had been that the freezing weather was not a reason to call off the launch as far as the orbiter was concerned. While he did have the authority to halt the countdown, he chose to report ‘GO’ to the KSC Launch Director.

In the minutes following the loss of Challenger, Greene’s responsibilities as flight director centered on ensuring that data from the accident was properly recorded and preserved, and that incident reports were written up.

NASA adopted a policy of minimum engagement with the press in the immediate aftermath of the accident. On the following day, the New York Times noted that “neither Jay Greene, flight director for the ascent, nor any other person in the control room, was made available to the press by the space agency”. He did, however, appear at a press conference later that day, where he answered questions about the accident. All the data received at Mission Control up to the time of Challenger’s disintegration appeared normal, he reported, and he was not able to shed light on the accident’s cause.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 3.2 – Richard O. Covey (Challenger CAPCOM)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Richard O. Covey

The Official Story

RICHARD O. COVEY
(CAPCOM, Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster)


 

Richard Oswalt Covey (born August 1, 1946) is a retired United States Air Force officer, former NASA astronaut, and a member of the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame.

NASA career

Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in January 1978, Covey became an astronaut in August 1979. A veteran of four space flights, STS-51-I in 1985, STS-26 in 1988, STS-38 in 1990, and STS-61 in 1993, Covey has logged over 646 hours in space.

Prior to the first flight of the Space Shuttle, he provided astronaut support in Orbiter engineering development and testing. He was a T-38 chase pilot for the second and third Shuttle flights and support crewman for the first operational Shuttle flight, STS-5. Covey also served as Mission Control spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) for Shuttle Missions STS-5, 6, 61-B, 61-C, and 51-L (it was his voice that said the now infamous words, “Challenger, go at throttle up” shortly before the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster). During 1989, he was Chairman of NASA’s Space Flight Safety Panel. He has held additional technical assignments within the NASA Astronaut Office, and has also served as Acting Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office, and Acting Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations.

Space flights

On his first mission, Covey was on the five-man crew of STS-51-I, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on August 27, 1985. During this seven-day mission, crew members deployed three communications satellites: the Navy SYNCOM IV-4, the Australian AUSSAT, and American Satellite Corporation’s ASC-1. The crew also performed the successful on-orbit rendezvous and repair of the ailing 15,000 pound (6.8 t) SYNCOM IV-3 satellite. This repair activity involved the first manual grapple and manual deployment of a satellite by a spacewalking crew member. Mission duration was 170 hours. The Space Shuttle Discovery completed 112 orbits before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on September 3, 1985.

He next served as pilot on STS-26, the first flight to be flown after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. The five-man crew launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on September 29, 1988, aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. Mission duration was 97 hours during which crew members successfully deployed the TDRS-C satellite and operated eleven secondary payloads which included two student experiments. Discovery completed 64 orbits of the Earth before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on October 3, 1988.

On STS-38 Covey was the spacecraft commander of a five-man crew that launched at night from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 15, 1990. During the five-day mission crew members conducted Department of Defense operations. After 80 orbits of the Earth in 117 hours, Covey piloted the Space Shuttle Atlantis to a landing on the runway at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1990. This was the first Shuttle recovery in Florida since 1985.

On his fourth flight, Covey commanded a crew of seven aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on the STS-61 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing and repair mission. STS-61 launched at night from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on December 2, 1993. During the 11-day flight, the HST was captured and restored to full capacity through a record five space walks by four astronauts. After having traveled 4,433,772 miles (7,135,464 km) in 163 orbits of the Earth, Covey landed the Endeavour at night on the runway at the Kennedy Space Center on December 13, 1993.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 3.3 – William R. Graham (Acting NASA Administrator, 1985-1986)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


William R. Graham

The Official Story

WILLIAM ROBERT GRAHAM
(Acting Administrator of NASA, 1985-1986)


 

William Robert Graham (born June 15, 1937) is an American physicist who was chairman of President Reagan’s General Advisory Committee on Arms Control from 1982 to 1985, a deputy administrator and acting administrator of NASA during 1985 and 1986, and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and concurrently science adviser to President Reagan from 1986 to 1989. He then served as an executive in national security-related companies.

Born in San Antonio, Texas, Graham received a B.S. degree in physics from the California Institute of Technology with Honors in 1959. In addition, he earned an M.S. degree in engineering science in 1961, and a PhD in electrical engineering in 1963, both from Stanford University.

Graham served three years active duty as a project officer with the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico, directing a group conducting experimental and theoretical research on strategic system survivability. Graham later spent six years with the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, California, and jointly founded R&D Associates in 1971.

In 1980, Graham served as an adviser to presidential candidate Ronald Reagan and was a member of the President-elect’s transition team. From 1982 to 1985, he served as chairman of the General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament, having been nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate in 1982. While chairing the General Advisory Committee, he led the preparation of the report “A Quarter Century of Soviet Compliance Practices Under Arms Control Commitments: 1958-1983”, which was submitted to the President and to Congress in 1984.

On September 12, 1985, Graham was nominated by President Reagan for the position of Deputy Administrator of NASA. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on November 18, and sworn in on November 25, 1985. For a period from December 4, 1985, to May 11, 1986, Graham served as acting Administrator of NASA following the resignation of James M. Beggs. It was on his watch as acting administrator that the Space Shuttle Challenger was launched in frigid weather, causing o-rings to fail and destroy the ship. Graham left NASA on October 1, 1986, to become director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). On October 16, 1986, he was sworn in as director of OSTP and concurrently as science adviser to President Reagan, positions he held until June 1989, when he left government service to join Jaycor, a high-technology company headquartered in San Diego, California. He later served as the chairman and CEO of National Security Research, Inc. from 1997 to 2005.

Graham has also been a consultant to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and served on many international and national boards and advisory groups, including the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Committee on Undersea Warfare and Board on Army Science and Technology, the Air Force Science Advisory Board Task Force on Manned Strategic System Vulnerability, the U.S.-U.K. Joint Working Group on Atomic Weapons, the Defense Nuclear Agency Scientific Advisory Group on Effects, and the Defense Science Board System Vulnerability Task Force and Associated Task Forces. He was a member of the Defense Science Board from 2001 through 2008 where he led several studies, and was also a member of the State Department’s International Security Advisory Board from 2006 through 2008.

In 1998, Graham served on the Rumsfeld Commission, which investigated the ballistic missile threat to the United States for the Congress, and in 2000 served on the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, also mandated by Congress. He chaired the statutory Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack from 2001 through 2008, which issued several reports, including a report entitled “Critical National Infrastructures” in 2008.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 3.4 – James C. Fletcher (NASA Administrator, 1986-1989)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


James C. Fletcher

The Official Story

JAMES C. FLETCHER
(4th & 7th Administrator of NASA, 1986-1989)


 

James Chipman Fletcher (June 5, 1919 – December 22, 1991) served as the 4th and 7th Administrator of NASA, first from April 27, 1971 to May 1, 1977, under President Richard M. Nixon, and again from May 12, 1986 to April 8, 1989, under President Ronald Reagan. As such, he was responsible for the early planning of the Space Shuttle program, and later for its recovery and return to flight after the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. Prior to this, he was president of the University of Utah from 1964 to 1971.

Biography

During his first administration at NASA, Fletcher was responsible for beginning the Space Shuttle effort, as well as the Viking program that sent landers to Mars. He oversaw the Skylab missions and approved the Voyager space probes and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.

When he left NASA in 1977, Fletcher became an independent consultant in McLean, Virginia, and served on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh. For nine years, he was active as an advisor to key national leaders involved in planning space policy. Among other activities, he served on an advisory board involved in developing the Strategic Defense Initiative.

In 1986, President Ronald Reagan selected Fletcher to administer NASA for a second time, to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. Shuttle flights went into a two-year hiatus while Fletcher ensured that NASA reinvested heavily in the program’s safety and reliability, made organizational changes to improve efficiency, and restructured its management system. He oversaw a complete reworking of the components of the Shuttle to enhance its safety, including a redesign of the solid rocket boosters, and added an egress method for the astronauts. The Space Shuttle returned to flight on September 29, 1988. Fletcher also approved the Hubble Space Telescope program. He served as Administrator until April 8, 1989, into the term of Reagan’s successor, President George H. W. Bush.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 3.5 – Richard H. Truly (NASA Administrator, 1989-1992)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Richard H. Truly

The Official Story

RICHARD H. TRULY
(8th Administrator of NASA, 1989-1992)


 

Richard Harrison Truly (born November 12, 1937) is a retired vice admiral in the United States Navy, a former fighter pilot, engineer, astronaut, and was the eighth administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1989 to 1992. He was the first former astronaut to head the space agency.

After his departure from NASA, he led the Georgia Tech Research Institute from 1992 to 1997, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory from 1997 to 2005.

NASA career

In 1965, Truly was among the first military astronauts selected to the United States Air Force’s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program in Los Angeles, California. He joined NASA Astronaut Group 7 in August 1969 after the cancellation of the MOL program. At NASA, he was a member of the astronaut support crew and capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for all three of the crewed Skylab missions in 1973, and the Apollo-Soyuz mission in 1975. He flew three times on one of the two-man crews for the 1977 Approach and Landing Tests of the Space Shuttle Enterprise, and on the STS-2 mission in 1981, becoming the first man to be launched into space on his birthday. Truly then served as commander of STS-8 in 1983.

After STS-8, Truly left NASA to become the first commander of the Naval Space Command.

Return to flight

Three weeks after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Truly returned to NASA to become NASA’s Associate Administrator for Space Flight on February 20, 1986. His primary task was to watch over the Space Shuttle’s return to flight status. Along with that, he was also responsible for such long term issues as whether or not Challenger would be replaced, the role the Shuttle would play in the future and the mixture of expendable spacecraft and the shuttle for upcoming missions. While it only took a few days to determine the technical reason for the accident, sorting out the root cause was more difficult. In the end, it took Truly and NASA’s “Return to Flight” program 31 months before the Space Shuttle Discovery successfully flew on September 29, 1988 with STS-26. In March 1986, Truly noted in a memo that there were several actions NASA needed to accomplish before launching another Shuttle flight. They included “Solid Rocket Motor joint redesign, Critical Items review, and Operations and Maintenance Instructions review”.

Challenger Disaster (Cause and time of death)

On July 28, 1986, NASA’s Associate Administrator for Space Flight, former astronaut Richard H. Truly, released a report on the deaths of the crew from physician and Skylab 2 astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin. Kerwin’s report could not determine whether the crew remained conscious until ocean impact, because it is unknown whether the crew cabin remained pressurized. Depressurization would have caused the crew to quickly lose consciousness, as the PEAPs supplied only unpressurized air. Pressurization could have enabled consciousness for the entire fall until impact. The crew cabin hit the ocean surface at 207 mph (333 km/h) approximately two minutes and 45 seconds after breakup. The estimated deceleration was 200 g, far exceeding structural limits of the crew compartment or crew survivability levels. The mid-deck floor had not suffered buckling or tearing, as would result from a rapid decompression, but stowed equipment showed damage consistent with decompression, and debris was embedded between the two forward windows that may have caused a loss of pressure. Impact damage to the crew cabin was severe enough that it could not be determined if the crew cabin had been previously damaged enough to lose pressurization.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 3.6 – Richard G. Smith (Kennedy Space Center Director, 1979-1986)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Richard G. Smith

The Official Story

RICHARD G. SMITH
(Director of Kennedy Space Center, 1979-1986)


 

Richard G. Smith (October 22, 1929 – March 14, 2019) was director of NASA’s John F. Kennedy Space Center from September 26, 1979 to August 2, 1986. Born in Durham, N.C., in 1929, Smith was educated in Alabama schools. After graduation from Decatur High School, he attended Florence State College and Auburn University. He received a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Auburn in 1951.

Smith became a member of the rocket research and development team at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, in June 1951. He transferred to NASA in July 1960 when the Development Operations Division of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency became the nucleus for the establishment of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

Smith served in positions of increasing responsibility at the Marshall Center. He held various assignments in the former Guidance and Control Laboratory and in the Systems Engineering Office prior to being appointed deputy manager and later manager of the Saturn Program. In January 1974 Smith became director of science and engineering and served in that position until he was named deputy director of the Marshall Center in 1974.

On August 15, 1978, Smith accepted a one-year assignment as deputy associate administrator for Space Transportation Systems at NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. He served as director of the Skylab Task Force appointed by the NASA administrator to represent NASA preceding and following the reentry of Skylab.

Smith was a member of the NASA Executive Development Education Panel, and he also served a three-year term as a member of the Auburn Alumni Engineering Council.

For his contributions to the Apollo Lunar Landing Program and the Skylab Program he received the NASA Medal for Exceptional Service in 1969 and the NASA Medal for Distinguished Service in 1973. In January 1980 he received NASA’s Outstanding Leadership Medal for his management of the Skylab Reentry Program. In September 1980 he was awarded the rank of meritorious executive in the Senior Executive Service. In June 1981, he was awarded an honorary doctorate of science degree by Florida Institute of Technology. He was also awarded an honorary doctorate of science degree by his Alma Mater, Auburn University, on December 9, 1983.

Smith’s administration covered the completion of the Space Shuttle buildup, the launch of 25 shuttle missions and the beginning of the planning effort for the original Space Station Freedom. Smith retired on Aug. 2, 1986.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 3.7 – NASA Logo

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


NASA Logo

The Official Story

NASA INSIGNIA


 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three main official designs, although the one with stylized red curved text (the “worm”) was retired from official use from May 22, 1992, until April 3, 2020, when it was reinstated as a secondary logo. The three logos include the NASA insignia (also known as the “meatball”), the NASA logotype (also known as the “worm”), and the NASA seal.

The NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President Kennedy in 1961.

History

The NASA logo dates from 1959, when the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) transformed into an agency that advanced both astronautics and aeronautics—the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NASA “meatball” insignia

After a NASA Lewis Research Center illustrator’s design was chosen for the new agency’s official seal, the executive secretary of NASA asked James Modarelli, the head of Reports Division at Lewis Research Center, to design a logo that could be used for less formal purposes. Modarelli simplified the seal, leaving only the white stars and orbital path on a round field of blue with a red vector. He then added white N-A-S-A lettering.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster – Section 4: The Rogers Commission

SECTION 4

The Official Story

ROGERS COMMISSION REPORT


 

The Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, also known as the Rogers Commission after its chairman, was formed on February 6. Its members were Chairman William P. Rogers, Vice Chairman Neil Armstrong, David Acheson, Eugene Covert, Richard Feynman, Robert Hotz, Donald Kutyna, Sally Ride, Robert Rummel, Joseph Sutter, Arthur Walker, Albert Wheelon, and Chuck Yeager.

The commission held hearings that discussed the NASA accident investigation, the Space Shuttle program, and the Morton Thiokol recommendation to launch despite O-ring safety issues. On February 15, Rogers released a statement that established the commission’s changing role to investigate the accident independent of NASA due to concerns of the failures of the internal processes at NASA. The commission created four investigative panels to research the different aspects of the Space Shuttle mission. The Accident Analysis Panel, chaired by Kutyna, used data from salvage operations and testing to determine the exact cause behind the accident. The Development and Production Panel, chaired by Sutter, investigated the contractors responsible for Space Shuttle components and how the contractors interacted with NASA. The Pre-Launch Activities Panel, chaired by Acheson, focused on the final assembly processes and pre-launch activities conducted at KSC. The Mission Planning and Operations Panel, chaired by Ride, investigated the planning that went into mission development, along with potential concerns over crew safety and pressure to adhere to a schedule. Over a period of four months, the commission interviewed over 160 individuals, held at least 35 investigative sessions, and involved more than 6,000 NASA employees, contractors, and support personnel. The commission published its report on June 6, 1986.

The commission determined that the cause of the accident was hot gas blowing past the O-rings in the field joint on the right SRB, and found no other potential causes for the disaster.  It attributed the accident to a faulty design of the field joint that was unacceptably sensitive to changes in temperature, dynamic loading, and the character of its materials. The report was critical of NASA and Morton Thiokol, and emphasized that both organizations had overlooked evidence that indicated the potential danger with the SRB field joints. It noted that NASA accepted the risk of O-ring erosion without evaluating how it could potentially affect the safety of a mission. The commission concluded that the safety culture and management structure at NASA were insufficient to properly report, analyze, and prevent flight issues. It stated that the pressure to increase the rate of flights negatively affected the amount of training, quality control, and repair work that was available for each mission.

The commission published a series of recommendations to improve the safety of the Space Shuttle program. It proposed a redesign of the joints in the SRB that would prevent gas from blowing past the O-rings. It also recommended that the Space Shuttle program’s management be restructured to keep project managers from being pressured to adhere to unsafe deadlines by the Space Shuttle organization, and should include astronauts to address crew safety concerns better. It proposed that an office for safety be established reporting directly to the NASA administrator to oversee all safety, reliability, and quality assurance functions in NASA programs. Additionally, the commission addressed issues with overall safety and maintenance for the orbiter, and it recommended the addition of the means for the crew to escape during controlled gliding flight.

During a televised hearing on February 11, Feynman demonstrated the loss of rubber’s elasticity in cold temperatures using a glass of cold water and a piece of rubber, for which he received media attention. Feynman, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist, advocated for harsher criticism towards NASA in the report and repeatedly disagreed with Rogers. He threatened to remove his name from the report unless it included his personal observations on the reliability of the Space Shuttle, which appeared as Appendix F. In the appendix, he lauded the engineering and software accomplishments in the Space Shuttle’s development, but he argued that multiple components, including the avionics and SSMEs in addition to the SRBs, were more dangerous and accident-prone than original NASA estimates had indicated.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

ARTICLE INDEX

THE TRUTH

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.1 – Rogers Commission Report (Cover Page)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Rogers Commission
Report

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(Rogers Commission Report)


 

The Rogers Commission Report was written by a Presidential Commission charged with investigating the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster during its 10th mission, STS-51-L. The report, released and submitted to President Ronald Reagan on 9 June 1986, both determined the cause of the disaster that took place 73 seconds after liftoff, and urged NASA to improve and install new safety features on the shuttles and in its organizational handling of future missions.

Findings

The commission found that the immediate cause of the Challenger accident was a failure in the O-rings sealing the aft field joint on the right solid rocket booster, causing pressurized hot gases and eventually flame to “blow by” the O-ring and contact the adjacent external tank, causing structural failure. The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a design flaw, as their performance could be too easily compromised by factors including the low temperature on the day of launch.

“An accident rooted in history”

More broadly, the report also determined the contributing causes of the accident. Most salient was the failure of both NASA and its contractor, Morton Thiokol, to respond adequately to the design flaw. The Commission found that as early as 1977, NASA managers had not only known about the flawed O-ring, but that it had the potential for catastrophe. This led the Rogers Commission to conclude that the Challenger disaster was “an accident rooted in history”.

Flawed launch decision

The report also strongly criticized the decision making process that led to the launch of Challenger, saying that it was seriously flawed. Morton Thiokol called a meeting the night before the launch to raise concerns over the forecast temperature in regards to the O-Rings. During the meeting, Morton Thiokol’s engineers issued a recommendation “not to launch below 53F”, the previous lowest temperature of a launch (STS-51C, a year earlier). The NASA managers challenged this and after a 30 minute offline caucus, Morton Thiokol’s senior management overruled their engineers decision and gave the launch the go ahead. The concerns were not communicated beyond the Level III Flight Readiness Review (FRR). It is certain that even though members of higher FRR teams knew about the issues, there were plenty of members who could have stopped the launch but decided not to. This was done in large part because of the management structure at NASA and the lack of major checks and balances, which proved to be fatal in this scenario. The report concluded that:

… failures in communication … resulted in a decision to launch 51-L based on incomplete and sometimes misleading information, a conflict between engineering data and management judgments, and a NASA management structure that permitted internal flight safety problems to bypass key Shuttle managers.

Role of Richard Feynman

One of the commission’s best-known members was theoretical physicist Richard Feynman. His style of investigating with his own direct methods rather than following the commission schedule put him at odds with Rogers, who once commented, “Feynman is becoming a real pain.” During a televised hearing, Feynman famously demonstrated how the O-rings became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. Feynman’s own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA’s engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA’s high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts. One such concept was the determination of a safety factor.

In one example, early tests resulted in some of the booster rocket’s O-rings burning a third of the way through. These O-rings provided the gas-tight seal needed between the vertically stacked cylindrical sections that made up the solid fuel booster. NASA managers recorded this result as demonstrating that the O-rings had a “safety factor” of 3. Feynman incredulously explains the magnitude of this error: A “safety factor” refers to the practice of building an object to be capable of withstanding more force than the force to which it will conceivably be subjected. To paraphrase Feynman’s example, if engineers built a bridge that could bear 3,000 pounds without any damage, even though it was never expected to bear more than 1,000 pounds in practice, the safety factor would be 3. If a 1,000-pound truck drove across the bridge and a crack appeared in a beam, even just a third of the way through a beam, the safety factor is now zero: The bridge is defective, there was no safety factor at all even though the bridge did not actually collapse.

Feynman was clearly disturbed by the fact that NASA management not only misunderstood this concept, but inverted it by using a term denoting an extra level of safety to describe a part that was actually defective and unsafe. Feynman continued to investigate the lack of communication between NASA’s management and its engineers, and was struck by management’s claim that the risk of catastrophic malfunction on the shuttle was 1 in 105, i.e. 1 in 100,000. Feynman immediately realized that this claim was risible on its face; as he described, this assessment of risk would entail that NASA could expect to launch a shuttle every day for the next 274 years while suffering, on average, only one accident. Investigating the claim further, Feynman discovered that the 1 in 105 figure was stating what they claimed the failure rate ought to be, given that it was a manned vehicle, and working backward to generate the failure rate of components.

Feynman was disturbed by two aspects of this practice. First, NASA management assigned a probability of failure to each individual bolt, sometimes claiming a probability of 1 in 108, i.e. one in one hundred million. Feynman pointed out that it is impossible to calculate such a remote possibility with any scientific rigor. Secondly, Feynman was bothered not just by this sloppy science but by the fact that NASA claimed that the risk of catastrophic failure was “necessarily” 1 in 105. As the figure itself was beyond belief, Feynman questioned exactly what “necessarily” meant in this context, whether it meant that the figure followed logically from other calculations or that it reflected NASA management’s desire to make the numbers fit.

Feynman suspected that the 1 in 105 figure was wildly fantastical, and made a rough estimate that the true likelihood of shuttle disaster was closer to 1 in 100. He then decided to poll the engineers themselves, asking them to write down an anonymous estimate of the odds of shuttle explosion. Feynman found that the bulk of the engineers’ estimates fell between 1 in 50 and 1 in 200 (at the time of retirement, the Shuttle suffered two catastrophic failures across 135 flights, for a failure rate of 1 in 67.5). Not only did this confirm that NASA management had clearly failed to communicate with their own engineers, but the disparity engaged Feynman’s emotions. When describing these wildly differing estimates, Feynman briefly lapses from his damaging but dispassionate detailing of NASA’s flaws to recognize the moral failing that resulted from a scientific failing: he was upset NASA presented its fantastical figures as fact to convince a member of the public, schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe, to join the crew. Feynman was not uncomfortable with the concept of a 1⁄100 risk factor, but felt strongly that the recruitment of laypeople required an honest portrayal of the true risk involved.

Feynman’s investigation eventually suggested to him that the cause of the Challenger disaster was the very part to which NASA management so mistakenly assigned a safety factor. The O-rings were rubber rings designed to form a seal in the shuttle’s solid rocket boosters, preventing the rockets’ hot gas from escaping and damaging other parts of the vehicle. Feynman suspected that despite NASA’s claims, the O-rings were unsuitable at low temperatures and lost their resilience when cold, thus failing to maintain a tight seal when rocket pressure distorted the structure of the solid fuel booster. Feynman’s suspicions were corroborated by General Kutyna, also on the commission, who cunningly provided Feynman with a broad hint by asking about the effect of cold on O-ring seals after mentioning that the temperature on the day of the launch was far lower than had been the case with previous launches: below freezing at 28 to 29 °F (−2.2 to −1.7 °C); previously, the coldest launch had been at 53 °F (12 °C). In 2013, the BBC film The Challenger revealed that the O-Ring insight had in fact come to Kutyna from the astronaut and fellow commission member Sally Ride, who had secretly provided him with NASA test results showing the O-rings became stiff when they were too cold.

Feynman’s investigations also revealed that there had been many serious doubts raised about the O-ring seals by engineers at Morton Thiokol, which made the solid fuel boosters, but communication failures had led to their concerns being ignored by NASA management. He found similar failures in procedure in many other areas at NASA, but singled out its software development for praise due to its rigorous and highly effective quality control procedures – then under threat from NASA management, which wished to reduce testing to save money given that the tests had always been passed.

Based on his experiences with NASA’s management and engineers, Feynman concluded that the serious deficiencies in NASA management’s scientific understanding, the lack of communication between the two camps, and the gross misrepresentation of the Shuttle’s dangers, required that NASA take a hiatus from Shuttle launches until it could resolve its internal inconsistencies and present an honest picture of the shuttle’s reliability. Feynman soon found that, while he respected the intellects of his fellow Commission members, they universally finished their criticisms of NASA with clear affirmations that the Challenger disaster should be addressed by NASA internally, but that there was no need for NASA to suspend its operations or to receive less funding. Feynman felt that the Commission’s conclusions misrepresented its findings, and he could not in good conscience recommend that such a deeply flawed organization as NASA should continue without a suspension of operations and a major overhaul. His fellow commission members were alarmed by Feynman’s dissent, and it was only after much petitioning that Feynman’s minority report was included at all. Feynman was so critical of flaws in NASA’s “safety culture” that he threatened to remove his name from the report unless it included his personal observations on the reliability of the shuttle, which appeared as Appendix F. In the appendix, he stated:

It appears that there are enormous differences of opinion as to the probability of a failure with loss of vehicle and of human life. The estimates range from roughly 1 in 100 to 1 in 100,000. The higher figures come from the working engineers, and the very low figures from management. What are the causes and consequences of this lack of agreement? Since 1 part in 100,000 would imply that one could put a Shuttle up each day for 300 years expecting to lose only one, we could properly ask “What is the cause of management’s fantastic faith in the machinery? … It would appear that, for whatever purpose, be it for internal or external consumption, the management of NASA exaggerates the reliability of its product, to the point of fantasy.

“For a successful technology,” Feynman concluded, “reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled.”

Feynman later wrote about the investigation in his 1988 book What Do You Care What Other People Think?. The second half of the book covers the investigation and the issues between science and politics.

Feynman later reported that, although he had believed he was making discoveries about the problems at NASA on his own, he eventually realized that either NASA or contractor personnel, in an apparent effort to anonymously focus attention on these problem areas, had carefully led him to the evidence which would support the conclusions on which he would later report.

Result

The Rogers Commission offered nine recommendations on improving safety in the space shuttle program, and NASA was directed by President Reagan to report back within thirty days as to how it planned to implement those recommendations. This is a summary of the chapter of Recommendations:

  1. Design and Independent Oversight

  2. Shuttle Management Structure, Astronauts in Management and Shuttle Safety Panel

  3. Criticality Review and Hazard Analysis

  4. Safety Organization

  5. Improved Communications

  6. Landing Safety

  7. Launch Abort and Crew Escape

  8. Flight Rate

  9. Maintenance Safeguards

In response to the commission’s recommendation, NASA initiated a total redesign of the space shuttle’s solid rocket boosters, which was watched over by an independent oversight group as stipulated by the commission. NASA’s contract with Morton Thiokol, the contractor responsible for the solid rocket boosters, included a clause stating that in the event of a failure leading to “loss of life or mission,” Thiokol would forfeit $10 million of its incentive fee and formally accept legal liability for the failure. After the Challenger accident, Thiokol agreed to “voluntarily accept” the monetary penalty in exchange for not being forced to accept liability.

NASA also created a new Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance, headed as the commission had specified by a NASA associate administrator who reported directly to the NASA administrator. George Rodney, formerly of Martin Marietta, was appointed to this position. Former Challenger flight director Jay Greene became chief of the Safety Division of the directorate.

The unrealistically optimistic launch schedule pursued by NASA had been criticized by the Rogers Commission as a possible contributing cause to the accident. After the accident, NASA attempted to aim at a more realistic shuttle flight rate: it added another orbiter, Endeavour, to the space shuttle fleet to replace Challenger, and it worked with the Department of Defense to put more satellites in orbit using expendable launch vehicles rather than the shuttle. In August 1986, President Reagan also announced that the shuttle would no longer carry commercial satellite payloads. After a 32-month hiatus, the next shuttle mission, STS-26, was launched on September 29, 1988.

After the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, attention once again focused on the attitude of NASA management towards safety issues. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) concluded that NASA had failed to learn many of the lessons of Challenger. In particular, the agency had not set up a truly independent office for safety oversight; the CAIB felt that in this area, “NASA’s response to the Rogers Commission did not meet the Commission’s intent”. The CAIB believed that “the causes of the institutional failure responsible for Challenger have not been fixed,” saying that the same “flawed decision making process” that had resulted in the Challenger accident was responsible for Columbia’s destruction seventeen years later.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.2 – Rogers Commission Report (Solid Rocket Booster Field Joint Assembly Diagram)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Rogers Commission
Report

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(O-ring)


 

An O-ring, also known as a packing or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, forming a seal at the interface.

The O-ring may be used in static applications or in dynamic applications where there is relative motion between the parts and the O-ring. Dynamic examples include rotating pump shafts and hydraulic cylinder pistons. Static applications of O-rings may include fluid or gas sealing applications in which: (1) the O-ring is compressed resulting in zero clearance, (2) the O-ring material is vulcanized solid such that it is impermeable to the fluid or gas, and (3) the O-ring material is resistant to degradation by the fluid or gas. The wide range of potential liquids and gases that need to be sealed has necessitated the development of a wide range of materials.

O-rings are one of the most common seals used in machine design because they are inexpensive, easy to make, reliable and have simple mounting requirements. They have been tested to seal up to 5,000 psi (34 MPa) of pressure. The maximum recommended pressure of an O-ring seal depends on the seal hardness and gland clearance.

Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

The failure of an O-ring seal was determined to be the cause of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster on January 28, 1986. A crucial factor was cold weather prior to the launch. This was famously demonstrated on television by Caltech physics professor Richard Feynman, when he placed a small O-ring into ice-cold water, and subsequently showed its loss of flexibility before an investigative committee.

The material of the failed O-ring was FKM, which was specified by the shuttle motor contractor, Morton-Thiokol. When an O-ring is cooled below its glass transition temperature Tg, it loses its elasticity and becomes brittle. More importantly, when an O-ring is cooled near (but not beyond) its Tg, the cold O-ring, once compressed, will take longer than normal to return to its original shape. O-rings (and all other seals) work by producing positive pressure against a surface, thereby preventing leaks. On the night before the launch, exceedingly low air temperatures were recorded. Due to this, NASA technicians performed an inspection; the ambient temperature was within launch parameters, and the launch sequence was allowed to proceed. However, the temperature of the rubber O-rings remained significantly lower than that of the surrounding air. During his investigation of the launch footage, Feynman observed a small out-gassing event from the Solid Rocket Booster at the joint between two segments in the moments immediately preceding the disaster. This was blamed on a failed O-ring seal. The escaping high-temperature gas impinged upon the external tank, and the entire vehicle was destroyed as a result.

Since the accident, rubber production companies have enacted changes. Many O-rings now come with batch and cure date coding, as is done in medicine production, to precisely track and control distribution. For aerospace and military applications, O-rings are usually individually packaged and labeled with the material, cure date, and batch information. O-rings can, if needed, be recalled off the shelf. Furthermore, O-rings and other seals are routinely batch-tested for quality control by the manufacturers, and often undergo quality assurance testing several more times by the distributor and ultimate end-users.

As for the boosters themselves, NASA and Morton-Thiokol redesigned them with a new joint design, which now incorporated three O-rings instead of two, with the joints themselves having onboard heaters that can be turned on when temperatures drop below 50 °F (10 °C). No O-ring issues have occurred since Challenger, and they did not play a role in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster of 2003.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.3 – Rogers Commission Members (Kennedy Space Center)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Rogers Commission
Members

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(The Rogers Commission)


 

The Rogers Commission Report was written by a Presidential Commission charged with investigating the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster during its 10th mission, STS-51-L. The report, released and submitted to President Ronald Reagan on 9 June 1986, both determined the cause of the disaster that took place 73 seconds after liftoff, and urged NASA to improve and install new safety features on the shuttles and in its organizational handling of future missions.

Commission Members


 

  • William P. Rogers, chairman and former United States Secretary of State (under Richard Nixon) and United States Attorney General (under Dwight Eisenhower)

  • Neil A. Armstrong (Vice Chairman), retired astronaut and first human to walk on the Moon (Apollo 11)

  • David Campion Acheson, diplomat and son of former Secretary of State Dean Acheson

  • Eugene E. Covert, aeronautics expert and former Chief Scientist of the U.S. Air Force

  • Richard P. Feynman, theoretical physicist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics

  • Robert B. Hotz, Editor, Aviation Week And Space Technology

  • Donald J. Kutyna, Air Force general with experience in ICBMs and Shuttle management

  • Sally K. Ride, American engineer, astrophysicist and first female American astronaut in space, flew on Challenger as part of missions STS-7 and STS-41-G

  • Robert W. Rummel, Trans World Airlines executive and aviation consultant to NASA

  • Joseph F. Sutter, Boeing Senior Vice President and Engineering Program Director on the Boeing 747 aircraft

  • Arthur B. C. Walker, Jr, solar physicist and Stanford University professor

  • Albert D. Wheelon, physicist and developer of Central Intelligence Agency’s aerial surveillance program

  • Charles E. Yeager, retired Air Force general and the first person to break the sound barrier in level flight

  • Alton G. Keel, Jr., executive director of the commission


 

Kennedy Space Center

The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC, originally known as the NASA Launch Operations Center), located on Merritt Island, Florida, is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) ten field centers. Since December 1968, KSC has been NASA’s primary launch center of human spaceflight. Launch operations for the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 and managed by KSC. Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (CCSFS). The management of the two entities work very closely together, share resources and operate facilities on each other’s property.

Though the first Apollo flights and all Project Mercury and Project Gemini flights took off from the then-Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launches were managed by KSC and its previous organization, the Launch Operations Directorate. Starting with the fourth Gemini mission, the NASA launch control center in Florida (Mercury Control Center, later the Launch Control Center) began handing off control of the vehicle to the Mission Control Center in Houston, shortly after liftoff; in prior missions it held control throughout the entire mission.

Additionally, the center manages launch of robotic and commercial crew missions and researches food production and In-Situ Resource Utilization for off-Earth exploration. Since 2010, the center has worked to become a multi-user spaceport through industry partnerships, even adding a new launch pad (LC-39C) in 2015.

There are about 700 facilities and buildings grouped across the center’s 144,000 acres (580 km2). Among the unique facilities at KSC are the 525-foot (160 m) tall Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking NASA’s largest rockets, the Launch Control Center, which conducts space launches at KSC, the Operations and Checkout Building, which houses the astronauts dormitories and suit-up area, a Space Station factory, and a 3-mile (4.8 km) long Shuttle Landing Facility. There is also a Visitor Complex open to the public on site.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.4 – William P. Rogers (Chairman, Rogers Commission)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


William P. Rogers

The Official Story

WILLIAM P. ROGERS
(Chairman, Rogers Commission)


 

William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American diplomat and attorney. He served as United States Attorney General under President Dwight D. Eisenhower and United States Secretary of State under President Richard Nixon. Despite Rogers being a close confidant of Nixon, National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger overshadowed Rogers and eventually succeeded him as Secretary of State. Rogers was the last surviving member of the cabinet of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Later life

Rogers led the investigation into the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger. The Rogers Commission was the first investigation to criticize NASA management for its role in negligence of safety in the Space Shuttle program. Among the more famous members of Rogers’s panel were astronauts Neil Armstrong and Sally Ride, Air Force general Donald Kutyna, and physicist Richard Feynman.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.5 – Neil Armstrong (Vice Chairman, Rogers Commission)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Neil Armstrong

The Official Story

NEIL A. ARMSTRONG
(Vice Chairman, Rogers Commission)


 

Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer, and the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also a naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor.

Armstrong was born and raised in Wapakoneta, Ohio. A graduate of Purdue University, he studied aeronautical engineering; his college tuition was paid for by the U.S. Navy under the Holloway Plan. He became a midshipman in 1949 and a naval aviator the following year. He saw action in the Korean War, flying the Grumman F9F Panther from the aircraft carrier USS Essex. In September 1951, while making a low bombing run, Armstrong’s aircraft was damaged when it collided with an anti-aircraft cable, strung across a valley, which cut off a large portion of one wing. Armstrong was forced to bail out. After the war, he completed his bachelor’s degree at Purdue and became a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards Air Force Base in California. He was the project pilot on Century Series fighters and flew the North American X-15 seven times. He was also a participant in the U.S. Air Force’s Man in Space Soonest and X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs.

Armstrong joined the NASA Astronaut Corps in the second group, which was selected in 1962. He made his first spaceflight as command pilot of Gemini 8 in March 1966, becoming NASA’s first civilian astronaut to fly in space. During this mission with pilot David Scott, he performed the first docking of two spacecraft; the mission was aborted after Armstrong used some of his re-entry control fuel to stabilize a dangerous roll caused by a stuck thruster. During training for Armstrong’s second and last spaceflight as commander of Apollo 11, he had to eject from the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle moments before a crash. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong and Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) pilot Buzz Aldrin became the first people to land on the Moon, and the next day they spent two and a half hours outside the Lunar Module Eagle spacecraft while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the Apollo Command Module Columbia. When Armstrong first stepped onto the lunar surface, he famously said: “That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.” It was broadcast live to an estimated 530 million viewers worldwide. Apollo 11 effectively proved US victory in the Space Race, by fulfilling a national goal proposed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy “of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth” before the end of the decade. Along with Collins and Aldrin, Armstrong was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon and received the 1969 Collier Trophy. President Jimmy Carter presented him with the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, he was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1979, and with his former crewmates received the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009.

After he resigned from NASA in 1971, Armstrong taught in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati until 1979. He served on the Apollo 13 accident investigation and on the Rogers Commission, which investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. In 2012, Armstrong died due to complications resulting from coronary bypass surgery, at the age of 82.

NASA commissions

In 1986, President Ronald Reagan asked Armstrong to join the Rogers Commission investigating the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger. Armstrong was made vice chairman of the commission, and held private interviews with contacts he had developed over the years to help determine the cause of the disaster. He helped limit the committee’s recommendations to nine, believing that if there were too many, NASA would not act on them.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.6 – Richard Feynman (Rogers Commission Member)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Richard Feynman

The Official Story

RICHARD FEYNMAN
(Rogers Commission Member)


 

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as his work in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 jointly with Julian Schwinger and Shin’ichirō Tomonaga.

Feynman developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles, which later became known as Feynman diagrams. During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World, he was ranked the seventh-greatest physicist of all time.

He assisted in the development of the atomic bomb during World War II and became known to a wide public in the 1980s as a member of the Rogers Commission, the panel that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. Along with his work in theoretical physics, Feynman has been credited with pioneering the field of quantum computing and introducing the concept of nanotechnology. He held the Richard C. Tolman professorship in theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology.

Feynman was a keen popularizer of physics through both books and lectures, including a 1959 talk on top-down nanotechnology called There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom and the three-volume publication of his undergraduate lectures, The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynman also became known through his autobiographical books Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman! and What Do You Care What Other People Think?, and books written about him such as Tuva or Bust! by Ralph Leighton and the biography Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman by James Gleick.

Challenger disaster

Feynman played an important role on the Presidential Rogers Commission, which investigated the 1986 Challenger disaster. He had been reluctant to participate, but was persuaded by advice from his wife. Feynman clashed several times with commission chairman William P. Rogers. During a break in one hearing, Rogers told commission member Neil Armstrong, “Feynman is becoming a pain in the ass.”

During a televised hearing, Feynman demonstrated that the material used in the shuttle’s O-rings became less resilient in cold weather by compressing a sample of the material in a clamp and immersing it in ice-cold water. The commission ultimately determined that the disaster was caused by the primary O-ring not properly sealing in unusually cold weather at Cape Canaveral.

Feynman devoted the latter half of his 1988 book What Do You Care What Other People Think? to his experience on the Rogers Commission, straying from his usual convention of brief, light-hearted anecdotes to deliver an extended and sober narrative. Feynman’s account reveals a disconnect between NASA’s engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA’s high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts. For instance, NASA managers claimed that there was a 1 in 100,000 probability of a catastrophic failure aboard the Shuttle, but Feynman discovered that NASA’s own engineers estimated the probability of a catastrophe at closer to 1 in 200. He concluded that NASA management’s estimate of the reliability of the Space Shuttle was unrealistic, and he was particularly angered that NASA used it to recruit Christa McAuliffe into the Teacher-in-Space program. He warned in his appendix to the commission’s report (which was included only after he threatened not to sign the report), “For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled.”

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.7 – Donald Kutyna (Rogers Commission Member)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Donald Kutyna

The Official Story

DONALD J. KUTYNA
(Rogers Commission Member)


 

General Donald Joseph Kutyna (born December 6, 1933) is a retired United States Air Force officer. He was commander in chief of the North American Aerospace Defense Command and the United States Space Command from 1990 to 1992, and commander of Air Force Space Command at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado from 1987 to 1990.

Los Angeles Air Force Base and Space Shuttle program

In June 1982, Kutyna became deputy commander for space launch and control systems at Space Division, Air Force Systems Command, Los Angeles Air Force Station, California. In this position he managed the Department of Defense Space Shuttle program, including the design and construction of the West Coast space shuttle launch site at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California; the acquisition of space shuttle upper stage boosters; and the operational aspects of launching military payloads on the shuttle.

Other responsibilities encompassed the development, acquisition and launch support of all Air Force expendable launch vehicles, including the Titan and Atlas space boosters and the Titan IV heavy lift launch vehicle, which provides a capability equivalent to the space shuttle. His programs for control of space missions encompassed the operations and upgrade of the Air Force satellite control network, and development of Air Force Space Command’s Consolidated Space Operations Center, Falcon Air Force Station, Colorado. In June 1984 Kutyna became director of space systems and command, control and communications, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Research, Development and Acquisition, at Air Force headquarters.

Kutyna is perhaps most famous for his aid in several investigations of NASA launch failures, especially his membership on the Rogers Commission investigating the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger. He was particularly critical of NASA’s decision to allow the shuttle to keep flying despite knowledge of the catastrophic O-ring flaw that ultimately led to the disaster. He likened this situation to an airline allowing a plane to fly despite evidence that one of its wings was about to fall off. While serving, he befriended fellow panelist Richard Feynman, who later described their partnership in his humorous memoir What Do You Care What Other People Think?. The partnership of Kutyna and Feynman was critical in the discovery and publication of the cause of the Challenger disaster: Kutyna told Feynman about how he was repairing his car and discovered that some seals failed due to low temperatures that morning. That inspired Feynman, who discovered the truth about O-ring weakness: they lack elasticity when at or below a temperature of 32 °F (0 °C) degrees, such as the morning of the accident. Feynman knew an astronaut had given Kutyna the crucial piece of information that led to his O-Ring insight; Kutyna later revealed that it was Sally Ride, a fellow member of the investigation commission but still a NASA employee at the time:

One day [early in the investigation] Sally Ride and I were walking together. She was on my right side and was looking straight ahead. She opened up her notebook and with her left hand, still looking straight ahead, gave me a piece of paper. Didn’t say a single word. I look at the piece of paper. It’s a NASA document. It’s got two columns on it. The first column is temperature, the second column is resiliency of O-rings as a function of temperature. It shows that they get stiff when it gets cold. Sally and I were really good buddies. She figured she could trust me to give me that piece of paper and not implicate her or the people at NASA who gave it to her, because they could all get fired. I wondered how I could introduce this information Sally had given me. So I had Feynman at my house for dinner. I have a 1973 Opel GT, a really cute car. We went out to the garage, and I’m bragging about the car, but he could care less about cars. I had taken the carburetor out. And Feynman said, “What’s this?” And I said, “Oh, just a carburetor. I’m cleaning it.” Then I said, “Professor, these carburetors have O-rings in them. And when it gets cold, they leak. Do you suppose that has anything to do with our situation?” He did not say a word. We finished the night, and the next Tuesday, at the first public meeting, is when he did his O-ring demonstration … I never talked with Sally about it later … I kept it a secret that she had given me that piece of paper until she died [in 2012].

The events of the Challenger investigation were dramatized in a 2013 TV film The Challenger Disaster, where Kutyna was portrayed by Bruce Greenwood.

Kutyna returned to Los Angeles Air Force Station as vice commander of Space Division in June 1986, overseeing all space system acquisitions, with particular emphasis on programs associated with the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.8 – Sally Ride (Rogers Commission Member)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Sally Ride

The Official Story

SALLY RIDE
(Rogers Commission Member)


 

Sally Kristen Ride (May 26, 1951 – July 23, 2012) was an American astronaut and physicist. Born in Los Angeles, she joined NASA in 1978, and in 1983 became the first American woman and the third woman in space, after cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova in 1963 and Svetlana Savitskaya in 1982. She was the youngest American astronaut to have traveled to space, having done so at the age of 32. After flying two missions on the Space Shuttle Challenger, Ride left NASA in 1987.

Ride worked for two years at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Arms Control, then at the University of California, San Diego, primarily researching nonlinear optics and Thomson scattering. She served on the committees that investigated the Challenger and Columbia Space Shuttle disasters, the only person to participate in both. Having been married to astronaut Steven Hawley during her spaceflight years and in a private, long-term relationship with former Women’s Tennis Association player Tam O’Shaughnessy, she is the first space traveler known to have been LGBT. Ride died of pancreatic cancer on July 23, 2012.

Rogers Commission

Ride was appointed to the Rogers Commission, the presidential commission investigating the disaster, and headed its subcommittee on operations. She was the only Space Shuttle astronaut and the only current NASA employee on the commission. After her death in 2012, Major General Donald J. Kutyna revealed that she had discreetly provided him with key information about O-rings, namely, that they become stiff at low temperatures, that eventually led to identification of the cause of the explosion. To protect her source, they then fed this information to Richard Feynman. Ride was even more disturbed by revelations of NASA dysfunctional management decision-making and risk-assessment processes. According to Roger Boisjoly, who was one of the engineers that warned of the technical problems that led to the Challenger disaster, after the entire workforce of Morton-Thiokol shunned him, Ride was the only public figure to show support for him when he went public with his pre-disaster warnings. Ride hugged him publicly to show her support for his efforts.

Following the Challenger investigation, Ride was assigned to NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C., where she led NASA’s first strategic planning effort. She authored a report titled “NASA Leadership and America’s Future in Space”. NASA management was unhappy with its prioritization of Earth exploration over a mission to Mars. She founded NASA’s Office of Exploration, which she headed for two months. On weekends she flew to Atlanta to be with O’Shaughnessy. In October 1986, she published a children’s book, To Space and Back, which she co-wrote with Sue Okie, her high school and Swarthmore friend.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.9 – Joe Sutter (Rogers Commission Member)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Joe Sutter

The Official Story

JOE SUTTER
(Rogers Commission Member)


 

Joseph Frederick Sutter (March 21, 1921 – August 30, 2016) was an American engineer for the Boeing Airplane Company and manager of the design team for the Boeing 747 under Malcolm T. Stamper, the head of the 747 project. Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine has described Sutter as the “father of the 747”.

Later life

Sutter served on the Rogers Commission, investigating the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.10 – Arthur B.C. Walker (Rogers Commission Member)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Arthur B.C. Walker

The Official Story

ARTHUR B.C. WALKER JR.
(Rogers Commission Member)


 

Arthur Bertram Cuthbert Walker Jr. (August 24, 1936 – April 29, 2001) was an African-American solar physicist and a pioneer of EUV/XUV optics. He is most noted for having developed normal incidence multilayer XUV telescopes to photograph the solar corona. Two of his sounding rocket payloads, the Stanford/MSFC Rocket Spectroheliograph Experiment and the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, recorded the first full-disk, high-resolution images of the Sun in XUV with conventional geometries of normal incidence optics; this technology is now used in solar telescopes such as SOHO/EIT and TRACE, and in the fabrication of microchips via ultraviolet photolithography.

Career

In 1962, Walker began his scientific career in the U.S. Air Force. He held the rank of first lieutenant, and worked in the Weapons Laboratory. Walker helped to create a satellite to study Van Allen Belt Radiation.

He also worked at the Space Physics Laboratory of the Aerospace Corporation, when his military stint ended in 1965. Here, Walker directed the Space Astronomy Program from 1971 to 1973. Much of his career involved using rocket technology and satellites to study the sun’s atmosphere at the ultraviolet and X-ray levels.

He was a professor at Stanford University from 1974 until his death in 2001. Walker started as the associate professor of Applied Physics in January 1974 and became a full professor in 1982. By 1991 he became a joint professor in applied physics and physics. Walker was a member of the Stanford’s Center for Space and Astrophysics, as well as the Astronomy Program, for all his time at the school. He also chaired the Astronomy Program from 1977 to 1980.

Walker mentored thirteen graduate students over his career at Stanford, and a majority of these students came from underrepresented groups in science. His first graduate student, Sally Ride, went on to become the first American woman in space. Walker also set up an informal advocacy association with other black faculty members called the “Banneker Group”.

He was instrumental in building Congressional approval for the National Solar Observatory, and served on the Rogers Commission which investigated the explosion of the Challenger Space Shuttle in 1986.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.11 – Chuck Yeager (Rogers Commission Member)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Chuck Yeager

The Official Story

CHUCK YEAGER
(Rogers Commission Member)


 

Brigadier General Charles Elwood Yeager (February 13, 1923 – December 7, 2020) was a United States Air Force officer, flying ace, and record-setting test pilot who in 1947 became the first pilot in history confirmed to have exceeded the speed of sound in level flight.

Yeager was raised in Hamlin, West Virginia. His career began in World War II as a private in the United States Army, assigned to the Army Air Forces in 1941. After serving as an aircraft mechanic, in September 1942, he entered enlisted pilot training and upon graduation was promoted to the rank of flight officer (the World War II Army Air Force version of the Army’s warrant officer), later achieving most of his aerial victories as a P-51 Mustang fighter pilot on the Western Front, where he was credited with shooting down 11.5 enemy aircraft (the half credit is from a second pilot assisting him in a single shootdown). On October 12, 1944, he attained “ace in a day” status, shooting down five enemy aircraft in one mission.

After the war, Yeager became a test pilot and flew many types of aircraft, including experimental rocket-powered aircraft for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Through the NACA program, he became the first human to officially break the sound barrier on October 14, 1947, when he flew the experimental Bell X-1 at Mach 1 at an altitude of 45,000 ft (13,700 m), for which he won both the Collier and Mackay trophies in 1948. He then went on to break several other speed and altitude records in the following years. In 1962, he became the first commandant of the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School, which trained and produced astronauts for NASA and the Air Force.

Yeager later commanded fighter squadrons and wings in Germany, as well as in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. In recognition of his achievements and the outstanding performance ratings of those units, he was promoted to brigadier general in 1969 and inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1973, retiring on March 1, 1975. His three-war active-duty flying career spanned more than 30 years and took him to many parts of the world, including the Korean War zone and the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War.

Yeager is referred to by many as one of the greatest pilots of all time, and was ranked fifth on Flying‘s list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation in 2013. Throughout his life, he flew more than 360 different types of aircraft over a 70-year period, and continued to fly for two decades after retirement as a consultant pilot for the United States Air Force.

Post-retirement career

In 1986, President Reagan appointed Yeager to the Rogers Commission that investigated the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 4.12 – Alton Keel (Rogers Commission, Executive Director)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Alton Keel

The Official Story

ALTON G. KEEL JR.
(Executive Director, Rogers Commission)


 

Alton Gold Keel Jr. (born September 15, 1943) is an American engineer, diplomat, and businessman.

Keel attended the University of Virginia, where he earned a bachelor of science in aerospace engineering in 1966 and a Ph.D. in 1970. He performed weapons research at the Naval Surface Weapons Center, and then joined the staff of the United States Senate, where he was a Congressional science fellow (1976–78) and a staff member of the Senate Armed Services Committee (1978–81). He then served as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Research, Development, and Logistics) (1981–82) and Associate Director of the Office of Management and Budget (1982–86). In 1986, he was appointed Executive Director of the Rogers Commission that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster.

In July 1986, President Ronald Reagan appointed Keel as the acting principal deputy to the National Security Advisor. From 1987-89, Keel was the United States Permanent Representative to NATO.

Keel has held various positions in corporate governance, and as of 2007 was president and managing director of Atlantic Partners LLC, a private investment-banking group.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

MIND CONTROL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster – Section 5: Memorials & Related Material

SECTION 5

The Official Story

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER
(January 28, 1986 — Cape Canaveral, Florida)


 

The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster was a fatal accident in the United States space program that occurred on January 28, 1986, when the Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the death of all seven crew members aboard; it was the first fatal accident involving an American spacecraft in flight. The mission, designated STS-51-L, was the tenth flight for the Challenger orbiter and twenty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle fleet. The crew was scheduled to deploy a communications satellite and study Halley’s Comet while they were in orbit. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:39 a.m. EST (16:39 UTC).

The disaster was caused by the failure of the two redundant O-ring seals in a joint in the Space Shuttle’s right solid rocket booster (SRB). The record-low temperatures of the launch reduced the elasticity of the rubber O-rings, reducing their ability to seal the joints. The broken seals caused a breach into the joint shortly after liftoff, which allowed pressurized gas from within the SRB to leak and burn through the wall to the adjacent external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB’s aft attachment, which caused it to crash into the external tank, which caused a structural failure of the external tank and an explosion. Following the explosion, the orbiter, which included the crew compartment, was broken up by aerodynamic forces.

The crew compartment and many other fragments from the Space Shuttle were recovered from the ocean floor after a three-month search-and-recovery operation. The exact timing of the deaths of the crew is unknown; several crew members are thought to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. By design, the orbiter had no escape system, and the impact of the crew compartment at terminal velocity with the ocean surface was too violent to be survivable.

The disaster resulted in a 32-month hiatus in the Space Shuttle program. President Ronald Reagan created the Rogers Commission to investigate the accident. The commission criticized NASA’s organizational culture and decision-making processes that had contributed to the accident. Test data from as early as 1977 had revealed a potentially catastrophic flaw in the SRBs’ O-rings. Neither NASA, nor Morton Thiokol (the SRB manufacturer), addressed or corrected the issue. NASA managers also disregarded warnings from engineers about the dangers of launching in cold temperatures and did not report these technical concerns to their superiors. As a result of the disaster, NASA established the Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance to address safety concerns better, and commercial satellites would be launched on expendable launch vehicles rather than deployed from the crewed orbiter. To replace Challenger, construction of Endeavour was approved in 1987, and the new orbiter first flew in 1992. Later Space Shuttle missions launched with redesigned SRBs, and crews wore pressure suits during ascent and reentry.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

ARTICLE INDEX

THE TRUTH

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 5.1 – Challenger Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger Memorial

The Official Story

ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY
(Virginia)


 

Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose 639 acres (259 ha) the dead of the nation’s conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. The United States Department of the Army, a component of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), controls the cemetery.

The national cemetery was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, previously the estate of Mary Anna Custis Lee, a great-granddaughter of Martha Washington and wife of Robert E. Lee. The Cemetery, along with Arlington House, Memorial Drive, the Hemicycle, and Arlington Memorial Bridge form the Arlington National Cemetery Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in April 2014.

Memorials

The Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial was dedicated on May 20, 1986, in memory of the crew of flight STS-51-L, who died during launch on January 28, 1986. Transcribed on the back of the stone is the text of the John Gillespie Magee, Jr. poem High Flight, which was quoted by then President Ronald Reagan when he addressed the disaster. Although many remains were identified and returned to the families for private burial, some were not, and were laid to rest under the marker. Two crew members, Dick Scobee and Michael Smith, are buried in Arlington.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 5.2 – Fragment of Challenger’s Fuselage (Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex)

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Fragment of
Challenger’s Fuselage

The Official Story

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER VISITOR COMPLEX


 

The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is the visitor center at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. It features exhibits and displays, historic spacecraft and memorabilia, shows, two IMAX theaters, and a range of bus tours of the spaceport. The “Space Shuttle Atlantis” exhibit contains the Atlantis orbiter and the Shuttle Launch Experience, a simulated ride into space. The center also provides astronaut training experiences, including a multi-axial chair and Mars Base simulator. The visitor complex also has daily presentations from a veteran NASA astronaut. A bus tour, included with admission, encompasses the separate Apollo/Saturn V Center. There were 1.7 million visitors to the visitor complex in 2016.

On the ground level is the “Forever Remembered” exhibit, commemorating the 14 astronauts lost in both Space Shuttle Challenger and Space Shuttle Columbia disasters. “Forever Remembered” includes personal artifacts from the astronauts, two recovered pieces of the Shuttles, footage of the physical and emotional recovery, and the return to flight.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 5.3 – NASA Tribute Poster

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


NASA Tribute Poster

The Official Story

NASA


 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space research.

NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion spacecraft, the Space Launch System, and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program, which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for uncrewed NASA launches.

NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System; advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program; exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft such as New Horizons; and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.

Space Shuttle Challenger

Final mission and destruction

STS-51-L was the orbiter’s tenth and final flight, initially planned to launch on January 26, 1986 (after several technical and paperwork delays). This mission attracted huge media attention, as one of the crew was a civilian schoolteacher – Christa McAuliffe, who was assigned to carry out live lessons from the orbiter (as part of NASA’s Teacher in Space Project). Other members would deploy the TDRS-B satellite and conduct comet observations.

Challenger blasted off at 11:38 am EST on January 28, 1986. Just over a minute into the flight, the faulty booster joint opened up, leading to a flame that melted securing struts which resulted in a catastrophic structural failure and explosion of the External Tank. The resulting pressure waves and aerodynamic forces destroyed the orbiter, resulting in the loss of all the crew.

Challenger was the first Space Shuttle to be destroyed in a mission accident. The collected debris of the vessel is currently buried in decommissioned missile silos at Launch Complex 31, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. A section of the fuselage recovered from Space Shuttle Challenger can also be found at the “Forever Remembered” memorial at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. Debris from the orbiter sometimes wash up on the Florida coast. This is collected and transported to the silos for storage. Because of its early loss, Challenger was the only Space Shuttle that never wore the NASA “meatball” logo, and was never modified with the MEDS “glass cockpit”. The tail was never fitted with a drag chute, which was fitted to the remaining orbiters in 1992. Challenger and sister ship Columbia are the only two shuttles that never visited the Mir Space Station or the International Space Station. In September 2020 Netflix released Challenger: The Final Flight, a four-part miniseries created by Steven Leckart and Glen Zipper documenting the tragedy firsthand.

Source: Wikipedia

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 5.4 – Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986) Dedication & Theatrical Poster

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Star Trek IV:
The Voyage Home (1986)

The Official Story

STAR TREK IV: THE VOYAGE HOME (1986)


 

Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home is a 1986 American science fiction film directed by Leonard Nimoy and based on the television series Star Trek. It is the fourth feature installment in the Star Trek franchise, and is a sequel to Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984); it completes the story arc begun in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982) and continued in The Search for Spock. Intent on returning home to Earth to face trial for their actions in the previous film, the former crew of the USS Enterprise finds the planet in grave danger from an alien probe attempting to contact now-extinct humpback whales. The crew travel to Earth’s past to find whales who can answer the probe’s call.

After directing The Search for Spock, Nimoy was asked to direct the next feature, and given greater freedom regarding the film’s content. Nimoy and producer Harve Bennett conceived a story with an environmental message and no clear-cut villain. Dissatisfied with the first screenplay produced by Steve Meerson and Peter Krikes, Paramount hired The Wrath of Khan writer and director Nicholas Meyer. Meyer and Bennett divided the story between them and wrote different parts of the script, requiring approval from Nimoy, lead actor William Shatner, and executives at Paramount Pictures. Principal photography commenced on February 24, 1986. Unlike previous Star Trek films, The Voyage Home was shot extensively on location; many real settings and buildings were used as stand-ins for scenes set around and in the city of San Francisco. Special effects firm Industrial Light & Magic assisted in post-production and the film’s special effects. Few of the humpback whales in the film were real: ILM devised full-size animatronics and small motorized models to stand in for the real creatures. The film was dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger, which broke up 73 seconds after takeoff on the morning of January 28, 1986.

The Voyage Home was released on November 26, 1986, in North America by Paramount Pictures, and became the top-grossing film at the weekend box office. The film’s humor, acting, direction, special effects and unconventional story were well received by critics, fans of the series, and the general audience. It was financially successful, earning $133 million worldwide, and earned several awards and four Oscar nominations for cinematography and sound.

Directed by:Leonard Nimoy
Screenplay by:Steve Meerson
Peter Krikes
Nicholas Meyer
Harve Bennett
Story by:Harve Bennett
Leonard Nimoy
Based on:Star Trek
by Gene Roddenberry
Produced by:Harve Bennett
Production Company:Paramount Pictures
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release date:November 26, 1986

Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986) – Trailer

PLOT SUMMARY

In 2286, an enormous cylindrical probe moves through space, sending out an indecipherable signal and disabling the power of every ship it passes. As it takes up orbit around Earth, its signal disables the global power grid and generates planetary storms, creating catastrophic, sun-blocking cloud cover. Starfleet Command sends out a planetary distress call and warns all space-faring vessels not to approach Earth.

On the planet Vulcan, the former officers of the late USS Enterprise are living in exile after the events of Star Trek III: The Search for Spock. Accompanied by the Vulcan Spock, still recovering from his resurrection, the crew take their captured Klingon Bird of Prey (renamed the Bounty, after the Royal Navy ship) and return to Earth to face trial for their actions. Receiving Starfleet’s warning, Spock determines that the probe’s signal matches the song of extinct humpback whales, and that the object will continue to wreak havoc until its call is answered. The crew uses their ship to travel back in time via a slingshot maneuver around the Sun, planning to return with a whale to answer the alien signal.

Arriving in 1986, the crew finds their ship’s power drained by the time travel maneuver. Hiding the Bounty in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park using its cloaking device, the crew split up to accomplish several tasks: Admiral James T. Kirk and Spock attempt to locate humpback whales, while Montgomery Scott, Leonard McCoy, and Hikaru Sulu construct a tank to hold the whales they need for a return to the 23rd century. Uhura and Pavel Chekov are tasked to find a nuclear reactor, whose energy leakage can be collected and used to re-power the Klingon vessel.

Kirk and Spock discover a pair of Humpback whales in the care of Dr. Gillian Taylor at a Sausalito aquarium, and learn they will soon be released into the wild. Kirk tells her of his mission and asks for the tracking frequency for the whales, but she refuses to cooperate. Meanwhile, Scott and McCoy trade the formula of transparent aluminium for the materials needed for the whale tank, while Sulu secures the use of a “Huey” helicopter to transport them. Uhura and Chekov locate a nuclear powered ship, the aircraft carrier Enterprise. They collect the power they need, but are discovered on board. Uhura is beamed out but Chekov is captured, and subsequently severely injured in an escape attempt.

Gillian learns the whales have been released early, and goes to Kirk for assistance. Gillian, Kirk, and McCoy rescue Chekov from a nearby hospital and return to the now recharged Bird of Prey. After saving the whales from whalers and transporting them aboard, the crew returns with Gillian to their own time. On approaching Earth, the Bounty loses power due to the alien probe, and crash-lands into the waters of San Francisco Bay. Once released from near-drowning, the whales respond to the probe’s signal, causing the object to reverse its effects on Earth and return to the depths of space.

Later, the Enterprise crew stand judgment before the Federation Council. The Council acknowledges their part in saving the planet and drops all charges, save one against Kirk for disobeying a superior officer. Kirk is demoted to the rank of Captain and returned to the command of a starship. Kirk and Gillian part ways, as she has been assigned to a science vessel by Starfleet, while Spock’s father Sarek finally accepts his son’s earlier choice to enter Starfleet. The crew discovers they have been awarded the newly christened USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-A), and leaves on a shakedown mission.

Source: Wikipedia

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY

Challenger Disaster – 5.5 – Challenger: The Final Flight (2020) Poster

SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER


Challenger:
The Final Flight (2020)

The Official Story

CHALLENGER: THE FINAL FLIGHT (2020)
[NETFLIX]


 

Challenger: The Final Flight is a 2020 docuseries created by Steven Leckart and Glen Zipper and directed by Daniel Junge and Steven Leckart. The limited docuseries revolves around the tragic 1986 incident involving NASA’s Space Shuttle Challenger.

Source: Wikipedia

Developed by:Steven Leckart
Glen Zipper
Directed by:Daniel Junge, Steven Leckart
No. of Seasons:1
No. of Episodes:4
Executive Producer:JJ Abrams
Production Companies:Bad Robot
Zipper Bros Films
Sutter Road Picture Company
Distributor:Netflix
Original Network:Netflix
Original Release:September 16, 2020

Challenger: The Final Flight (2020) – Trailer

The Truth

FALSE FLAG

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

SUBLIMINAL
adjective

(of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

HISTORICAL TRUTH

THE TIME IS NOW:

AWAKEN HUMANITY